Are you saving enough for retirement? No.
Well, maybe you are. But that would make you an exception, as study upon study show that Americans are woefully unprepared for retirement. Right now, with year-end statements from your broker, mutual fund companies and bank in hand, it’s a good time to rethink your savings rate and asset allocation.
Savings rate, of course, is the percentage of your income you put into long-term holdings, a rainy-day fund and so forth. In the 1990s, many investors figured they didn’t need to put too much aside because stellar stock-market returns would inflate their holdings. The past decade has shown it’s too risky to count on that. A big nest egg is more likely to be built through a high savings rate than stunning investment returns.
Asset allocation means the way your investments are divided among stocks, bonds and cash, as well as subcategories. An investor might assume that stocks will return 8% to 10% a year over time, bonds 5% or 6%, cash 2% or 3%. Since a new retiree may live another 30 or 40 years, some stock holdings are necessary to keep ahead of inflation. But stocks are volatile, so bonds are cash provide stability.
How should money be divided between the various asset classes? The market-data firms Morningstar (Stock Quote: MORN) and Ibbotson Associates have produced an allocation index based on historical performance. It suggests that a 24-year-old with a moderate tolerance for risk put 55% of the portfolio into U.S. stocks, 34% in foreign stocks, 5% in U.S. bonds, 2% in foreign bonds and 4% into commodities as an inflation hedge.
A 74-year-old with a moderate taste for risk would keep 27% in U.S. stocks, 8% in foreign stocks, 33% in U.S. bonds, 4% in foreign bonds, 6% in commodities, 17% in Treasury inflation-protected securities and 5% in cash. Look at the table to find the allocation suitable for you.