The Philippines ranked 18th in the world for gold production as of 2011, according to Gold Facts. It produced 37.1 tonnes of gold that year. Its reserves are estimated to be around 3.77 million ounces, and the country accounts for 1.32 percent of the world's gold production. Here's a look at some of the challenges of mining in the country, as well as which companies are currently doing so. Conditions and challenges Challenges to mining in the Philippines are largely political in nature. Very recently, the Asian Human Rights Commission states, an anti-mining activist was shot and killed in Compostela Valley, Mindanao. The victim had worked to demand compensation from Apex Mining (PSE: APX) for losses and damages sustained during the most recent typhoon as a result of the company's operations. That is not the first instance of its kind that has been recorded. Opposition to mining is fierce in some areas, and any producers that operate in the Philippines need to be aware of that reality and prepared to address local concerns. Despite that opposition, the government of the Philippines is favorable to mining investment and activity. That may be part of why there are so many producers operating in the country. Here are a few: Indophil Resources (ASX:IRN) Indophil Resources, an Australia-based company, was founded in 1996 to acquire and develop gold and copper-gold opportunities in Southeast Asia. Indophil Resources' exploration portfolio in the Philippines is comprised of four projects in two different areas of the country. One area is Northern Luzon, and the other is Eastern Mindanao. The projects include licenses and tenement applications, and feature gold and copper-gold mineralization. The Balatoc operation, in Northern Luzon, was mined before in the 1980s as an underground block-caving operation. The Eastern Mindanao projects, Manat and Bunawan, are both still being explored and have never been operating mines before, though results of early exploration are promising.