According to the report, the United States remained the largest public sector funder of HIV prevention research, spending a total of US$925 million in 2012—70 percent of the total investment in HIV prevention R&D—and underscoring the importance of fostering broader commitments by additional global partners."As the report highlights, the HIV vaccine field has been a leader in catalyzing innovative partnerships across the public, private, philanthropic and academic sectors. Such partnerships can help integrate new funders and help enhance the information exchange and collaboration that is required as we tackle remaining critical questions in immunology as we move forward to develop even more effective prevention options, " said Margaret McGlynn, President and CEO of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, IAVI. For the first time this year, the report includes the critical investment made by HIV prevention research trial participants. In 2012, there were 99,931 participants in HIV prevention research trials, primarily based in sites with high HIV burden in South Africa, Uganda and the United States. As more efficacy trials are planned, tens of thousands more women and men in the communities hardest hit by HIV will take time from their daily lives to participate in clinical trials and to help end the epidemic, representing a significant, ongoing investment in prevention R&D. Following the scientific breakthroughs of 2011, during which preventive HIV vaccines, PrEP, and treatment as prevention all advanced faster and further along the scientific path, 2012 was largely a year of follow-up research seeking to confirm results of past studies, move forward with new clinical research and roll out proven new prevention modalities. Even though 2012 brought steady progress, it also brought results that have both challenged the resiliency of the HIV prevention research field and raised new questions that the field is compelled to answer.
- Additional data from the RV144 vaccine trial in Thailand has provided new clues about why and how the vaccine worked and has helped to pave the way for trials set to begin in Thailand and South Africa in 2016. At the same time, researchers are developing other vaccine candidates and also learning more about broadly neutralizing antibodies, which may form the basis of future clinical trials.
- 2012 saw intensified focus on faster rollout of adult male circumcision for maximum prevention impact. Funding for R&D and operations research increased, with an emphasis on research that would better inform delivery and demand and enhance understanding of current constraints.
- Planning for demonstration projects of daily oral PrEP among a range of populations moved forward in 2012, following the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Gilead Science Inc.'s daily oral TDF/FTC as PrEP and World Health Organization (WHO) guidance for PrEP demonstration research trials.
- Large-scale trials of treatment as prevention are now taking place in more than 40 countries around the world, demonstrating a global commitment to explore the potential of this intervention. At the same time, implementers and normative agencies continued their efforts to add treatment as prevention to HIV prevention agendas and the national strategies.
- Following flat results from the VOICE (MTN 003), which was testing daily oral tenofovir, daily oral TDF/FTC and daily 1% tenofovir gel, data from the trial are being examined, and preliminary results suggest that too few women in the trial adhered to prescribed use of the trial products to allow for evaluation of their effectiveness. The ongoing FACTS trial of 1% tenofovir gel as well as microbicide ring trials are working to incorporate lessons learned from the VOICE trial around understanding and supporting participant adherence.