Covered issuers' costs of authorizing, clearing and settling debit card transactions, excluding fraud losses, varied greatly across respondents in 2011, with the median issuer having an average ACS cost of 11 cents and the issuer at the 75th percentile having an average ACS cost of 36 cents. Issuers with the highest debit card transaction volume generally had the lowest ACS costs per transaction as reflected in an overall average of 5 cents per transaction. Conversely, issuers with the smallest debit card programs generally had the highest ACS costs per transaction.Some retail industry groups say banks are actually earning more in revenues than before the financial crisis hit back in 2008, when the old debit card fee limits were in place.. According to the Washington, D.C.-based Merchants Payments Coalition, the five largest U.S. banks earned more than $12.5 billion in 2011, while U.S. merchants paid banks $30 billion in debit card swipe fees in 2012 and consumers paid $460 in extra costs to retailers who were forced to raise prices to counter bank swipe fees. Why did banks keep making money even after the Durbin Amendment went into effect?