The publication by Dr. Cortes, et al. titled "Two dosing regimens of tosedostat in elderly patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (OPAL): a randomized open-label phase 2 study," is available at http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/issue/current.About Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) About 13,780 new cases of AML were expected to be diagnosed in the United States in 2012. 1 As of January 2008 an estimated 30,993 people were living with (or were in remission from) AML. Although AML can occur at any age, adults aged 60 years and older are more likely to develop the disease than younger people. 2 AML is a cancer characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells. AML may develop from the progression of other diseases such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a blood cancer that also affects the bone marrow leading to a decrease in circulating red blood cells. AML is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age. The symptoms of AML are caused by replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemic cells, which causes a drop in red blood cells, platelets, and normal white blood cells leading to infections and bleeding. AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated. Although a substantial proportion of younger individuals who develop AML can be cured, AML in the elderly typically responds poorly to standard therapy with few complete remissions. About Tosedostat Tosedostat is an oral, aminopeptidase inhibitor that has demonstrated significant anti-tumor responses in blood-related cancers and solid tumors in Phase 1-2 clinical trials. CTI has exclusive marketing and co-development rights to Chroma Therapeutics Ltd.'s drug candidate tosedostat in North, Central and South America.