Why has Vanguard excelled? The biggest single reason is low fees. Vanguard's active equity funds charge average expense ratios of 0.37%, compared to 1.29% for the average domestic equity fund. Many researchers have shown that cheap funds outdo expensive ones. Active managers tend to lag the benchmarks because of high fees. In its study, Vanguard argues that the best single predictor of future performance is low fees. Vanguard has long charged less because of its unique corporate structure. While nearly every competitor is a profit-making business, Vanguard is a mutual company that is owned by its shareholders. Because it does not have to achieve profits, Vanguard can impose low fees. In its study, Vanguard argues that part of the reason for the strong performance is the way the company selects portfolio managers. While fund companies such as Fidelity and T. Rowe Price hire employees to manage portfolios, Vanguard recruits outside freelancers known as subadvisers. Vanguard is the largest user of subadvisers, managing $350 billion with 30 outside firms. Vanguard argues that because of its size and scale, the company can recruit the best subadvisers at cost-effective rates. Managers are typically paid fees that are less than 0.3% of assets, a percentage level that is well below industry averages. The managers accept the modest compensation rates because they know that Vanguard subadvisers can generate rich income by overseeing huge portfolios. Another attraction is that Vanguard is a famously loyal employer, keeping the average subadviser for 13 years. If a subadviser delivers disappointing results for a couple of years, Vanguard does not fire the poor performer immediately. Instead, the company waits patiently for a recovery. As an additional incentive, Vanguard pays performance-based fees. Under this system, managers who outdo their benchmarks receive extra payments. Those who underperform see their compensation reduced. Most managers hate performance fees, and only 3% of mutual funds use them. But Vanguard argues that the performance fees have been important factors in its success. In its study, Vanguard repeats the boilerplate that past performance does not guarantee future success. Still, there are good reasons to believe that the company's effective system will continue providing actively managed funds that outdo the benchmarks.