This report identifies 109 candidate antibiotics in the clinical pipeline, approximately 70% of which are in early development (Preclinical and Phase 1). In contrast, there are just 9 candidates at Phase 3, while there are 31 at Phase 2. These pipeline developments are being progressed by 66 companies, of which nine (14%) are major international corporations and 57 (86%) are Small/Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs).Executive Summary Chapter 1 Introduction (p.18) 1.1 Antibiotic Resistance1.2 Resistance Mechanisms1.3 The Resistome1.4 Pathogenomics1.5 Strategies and Targets1.6 The Cost of Antibiotic Resistance1.7 Global Surveillance1.8 This Report Chapter 2 Antibiotic Resistance, Global Trends (p.27) 2.1 Antibiotic Resistance2.2 Europe2.2.1 Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2005 to 2010)2.2.2 Escherichia coli 2.2.3 Streptococcus pneumoniae 2.2.4 Staphylococcus aureus 2.2.5 Enterococcus faecalis2.2.6 Klebsiella pneumoniae2.2.7 Pseudomonas aeruginosa2.3 Other Countries2.4 China2.5 USA2.6 Kuwait2.7 Discussion Chapter 3 Marketed Antibiotics (p.63) 3.1 Marketed Antibiotics3.2 Mechanisms3.3 Companies3.4 Sulphonamides3.5 Beta Lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams)3.6 Aminoglycosides3.7 Tetracyclines3.8 Quinolones/Fluoroquinolones3.9 Macrolides3.10 Combinations3.11 Folate antagonists3.12 Mycobacterials3.13 Glycopeptides3.14 Others3.15 Discussion Chapter 4 Pipeline Antibiotics (p.86) 4.1 Pipeline Antibiotics4.2 Companies4.3 Phase 34.4 Phase 24.5 Phase 14.6 Preclinical4.7 Discussion Chapter 5 Discussion (p.106) 5.1 Background5.2 Mechanisms5.3 Multiple Activities5.4 Marketed Antibiotics5.5 Antibiotics Pipeline5.6 Circumventing Resistance5.7 Resistance Mutations5.8 Virulence5.9 Conclusions References (p.120) Tables Table 2.1 EARSS Surveillance Programme: Countries and Country codes Table 3.1 Developers or companies with marketed antibiotics for bacterial or fungal Infections (Source: Biopharm Reports, 2013). The top 11 companies are indicated in blue Table 3.2 Approved/marketed sulphonamide drugs, which exert their bactericidal effects through folate inhibition (Source: Biopharm Reports, 2013). Table 3.3 Approved/marketed beta lactam antibiotics, which exert their bactericidal effects through the inhibition of cell wall synthesis (Source: Biopharm Reports, 2013). Table 3.4 Approved/marketed penicillins, which exert their bactericidal effects through the inhibition of cell wall synthesis (Source: Biopharm Reports, 2013).