NEW YORK ( TheStreet) -- Investors have been abandoning actively managed mutual funds, which aim to outdo market benchmarks. Since 2008, shareholders have pulled $393 billion from active large-cap U.S. stock funds, according to Morningstar. At the same time, large-cap index funds reported $218 billion in inflows.Part of the reason for the exodus from active managers could be that investors think index funds will outperform. But much of the move into passive funds is due to dramatic changes in the compensation system of financial advisers. These days advisers have a motivation to recommend index funds. That is very different from the past, when financial advisers had incentives to stick with active funds. The shift in compensation has had a big impact because half of all fund investors use a financial adviser, according to the Investment Company Institute, the mutual fund trade group.
As recently as two decades ago, the big majority of advisers were paid every time a client bought a stock or mutual fund. When they sold funds, advisers received a commission known as a load. A typical fund would charge an up-front load of 5%. So when a client spent $10,000, $500 went to the broker, and only $9,500 was invested in mutual fund shares. Under the commission system, the adviser had a clear incentive to recommend funds that came with the biggest loads. In most cases, funds with sizable loads were actively managed. The advisers had no incentive to sell funds that came without loads. In most cases, the no-load funds were designed to serve do-it-yourself investors who did not use advisers. Index funds from Vanguard and other companies typically came with little or no loads, so they were largely ignored by advisers.
In the 1990s, critics began to attack the use of loads. In the load system, advisers were rewarded for trading rapidly because each new purchase generated a commission. The critics said that the commission system caused advisers to focus on their own incomes -- not on what was best for the clients. Gradually many brokers came to agree. Instead of charging a commission for each transaction, more advisers began imposing flat annual fees that equaled 1% or so of a client's total portfolio.