- The risk of death was reduced by 19 percent for people who received Avastin in combination with standard chemotherapy in both the first- and second-line compared to those who received chemotherapy alone (HR=0.81, p=0.0057). Median overall survival was 11.2 months compared to 9.8 months.
- The risk of the cancer worsening or death (progression-free survival; PFS) was reduced by 32 percent (HR=0.68, p<0.0001). Median PFS was 5.7 months compared to 4.1 months.
- Overall survival and PFS were calculated from the time patients were randomized to the second-line treatment.
- There was no significant difference in response rate between treatment arms.
- Adverse events (AEs) in ML18147 were consistent with those seen in previous pivotal trials of Avastin in mCRC.
Avastin is approved in Europe in combination with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic carcinoma of the colon or rectum. The European product information has been updated based on the positive results of the Phase III ML18147 study with an implementation date of December 12, 2012, allowing people with mCRC who received Avastin plus chemotherapy as a first-line treatment to continue to receive Avastin plus chemotherapy after their cancer worsens as part of their second-line treatment.About the ML18147 Study ML18147 was a randomized, open-label, Phase III multicenter, multinational trial evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of Avastin plus standard second-line chemotherapy in 820 patients with mCRC whose disease had progressed following Avastin plus standard first-line chemotherapy (irinotecan or oxaliplatin-based). Patients were randomized at progression to one of two treatment arms:
- Arm A: Chemotherapy* plus Avastin (equivalent of 2.5 mg/kg i.v. per week)
- Arm B: Chemotherapy* alone
Avastin Indications in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer:
- Avastin is indicated for the first- or second-line treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma of the colon or rectum in combination with intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy.
- Avastin in combination with fluoropyrimidine-irinotecan or fluoropyrimidine-oxaliplatin based chemotherapy is indicated for the second-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have progressed on a first-line Avastin containing regimen.
- Avastin is not indicated for adjuvant treatment of colon cancer.
Severe bleeding: Treatment with Avastin can result in serious or fatal bleeding, including coughing up blood, bleeding in the stomach, vomiting of blood, bleeding in the brain, nosebleeds and vaginal bleeding. These events occurred up to five times more often in people who received Avastin compared to patients who received only chemotherapy. Across cancer types, 1.2 percent to 4.6 percent of people who received Avastin experienced severe-to-fatal bleeding. People who have recently coughed up blood (greater than or equal to a half teaspoon of red blood) or have serious bleeding should not receive Avastin. Treatment with Avastin should be permanently stopped if serious bleeding occurs.In clinical trials for different cancer types, there were additional serious and sometimes fatal side effects that occurred in more people who received Avastin than in those in the comparison group. The formation of an abnormal passage from parts of the body to another part (non-GI fistula formation) was seen in 0.3 percent or less of people. Severe to life threatening stroke or heart problems were seen in 2.6 percent of people. Too much protein in the urine that led to kidney problems was seen in less than one percent of people. Additional serious side effects that occurred in more people who received Avastin than those in the comparison group included severe to life threatening high blood pressure, which was seen in five percent to 18 percent of people, and nervous system and vision disturbances (reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome), which was seen in less than 0.1 percent of people. Infusion reactions with the first dose of Avastin were uncommon and occurred in less than three percent of people, and severe reactions occurred in 0.2 percent of people. Avastin can cause fertility issues for women. Avastin could cause a woman’s ovaries to stop working and may impair her ability to have children.
Common side effects that occurred in more than 10 percent of people who received Avastin for different cancer types, and at least twice the rate of the comparison group, were nosebleeds, headache, high blood pressure, inflammation of the nose, too much protein in the urine, taste change, dry skin, rectal bleeding, tear production disorder, back pain, and inflammation of the skin (exfoliative dermatitis). Across all trials, treatment with Avastin was permanently stopped in 8.4 percent to 21 percent of people because of side effects.Patients who are pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant should talk with their doctor about the potential risk of loss of the pregnancy or the potential risk of Avastin to the fetus during and following Avastin therapy, and the need to continue an effective birth control method for at least six months following the last dose of Avastin. Women should be advised to discontinue nursing or discontinue treatment with Avastin, taking into account the importance of Avastin to the mother. First-line Metastatic Colorectal Cancer In the first-line metastatic colorectal cancer trial, the most common severe to life threatening side effects that increased by two percent or more in people who received Avastin plus IFL chemotherapy vs. IFL alone were weakness (10 percent vs. 7 percent), abdominal pain (8 percent vs. 5 percent), pain (8 percent vs. 5 percent), high blood pressure (12 percent vs. 2 percent), blood clots in the veins of the body (9 percent vs. 5 percent), blood clots inside the abdomen (3 percent vs. 1 percent), a brief loss of consciousness (3 percent vs. 1 percent), diarrhea (34 percent vs. 25 percent), constipation (4 percent vs. 2 percent), reduced white blood cell counts (37 percent vs. 31 percent), and reduced white blood cell counts that may increase the chance of infection (21 percent vs. 14 percent).
Second-line Metastatic Colorectal CancerIn the second-line metastatic colorectal cancer trial, the most common severe to life threatening and fatal side effects that increased by two percent or more in people who received Avastin plus FOLFOX4 chemotherapy vs. FOLFOX4 alone were diarrhea (18 percent vs. 13 percent), nausea (12 percent vs. 5 percent), vomiting (11 percent vs. 4 percent), dehydration (10 percent vs. 5 percent), blockage of the bowel (4 percent vs. 1 percent), numbness and tingling in fingers and toes (17 percent vs. 9 percent), nervous system disturbances (5 percent vs. 3 percent), tiredness (19 percent vs. 13 percent), abdominal pain (8 percent vs. 5 percent), headache (3 percent vs. 0 percent), high blood pressure (9 percent vs. 2 percent), and severe bleeding (5 percent vs. 1 percent). Second-line Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Patients who Have Progressed on an Avastin Containing Regimen in First-line mCRC In this second-line trial, no new safety signals were observed when Avastin was administered in second-line mCRC patients who progressed on an Avastin containing regimen in first-line mCRC. The safety data was consistent with the known safety profile established in first and second-line mCRC. For full Prescribing Information and Boxed WARNINGS on Avastin, please visit http://www.avastin.com. About Genentech Founded more than 30 years ago, Genentech is a leading biotechnology company that discovers, develops, manufactures and commercializes medicines to treat patients with serious or life threatening medical conditions. The company, a member of the Roche Group, has headquarters in South San Francisco, California. For additional information about the company, please visit http://www.gene.com.