"This study is a good example of the important insights that can be gained by studying the largest possible number of patients in as much detail as possible. This approach led us to key insights about these leukemia subtypes that we would otherwise have missed," said the study's senior and corresponding author, Charles Mullighan, MBBS(Hons), MSc, M.D., an associate member of the St. Jude Pathology Department. Mullighan is a Pew Scholar in Biomedical Sciences.The near haploid and low hypodiploid ALL subtypes represent 1 to 2 percent of the estimated 3,000 pediatric ALL cases diagnosed annually in the U.S. But they account for a much larger number of ALL treatment failures. Today more than 90 percent of young ALL patients will become long-term survivors, compared to 40 percent for patients with these two high-risk subtypes. St. Jude researchers led the study in collaboration with investigators from the Children's Oncology Group, the world's largest organization devoted exclusively to childhood and adolescent cancer research. "The cure rate for hypodiploid ALL is only about half that obtained overall for children with ALL. The findings of this study are very important and have the potential to impact how this high-risk subset of childhood ALL is treated," said Stephen Hunger, M.D., chair of the Children's Oncology Group ALL committee and one of the paper's co-authors. "This study grew out of the efforts of Hank Schueler, a teenager who died from hypodiploid ALL. He wanted to find ways to help treat other children with this type of leukemia. After he passed away, his parents established a foundation to support research in hypodiploid ALL. We thought that one way to do this was to conduct the genomic analyses reported in this paper. These findings would not have been possible without Hank's idea and without support from the Schueler family." Researchers used a variety of laboratory techniques to look for genetic abnormalities in cancer cells from 124 pediatric patients missing at least one chromosome. The patients included 68 with near haploid ALL and 34 with low hypodiploid ALL. Investigators also checked white blood cells collected when 89 of the 124 patients were in remission. The study included whole-genome sequencing of the entire cancer and normal genomes of 20 patients with near haploid or low hypodiploid subtypes. For another 20 patients, investigators deciphered just DNA involved in protein production. Researchers also screened cancer cells from 117 adult ALL patients, including 11 with the low hypodiploid subtype.