Compensation and BenefitsCompensation and benefits expenses (including salaries, discretionary compensation, amortization of equity awards and other items such as benefits) were $12.94 billion for 2012, 6% higher than 2011. The ratio of compensation and benefits to net revenues for 2012 was 37.9% compared with 42.4% for 2011. Total staff (11) decreased 3% compared with the end of 2011. Non-Compensation Expenses Full YearNon-compensation expenses were $10.01 billion for 2012, 4% lower than 2011. The decrease compared with 2011 primarily reflected the impact of expense reduction initiatives, lower brokerage, clearing, exchange and distribution fees, lower occupancy expenses and lower impairment charges. These decreases were partially offset by higher other expenses and increased reserves related to the firm’s reinsurance business. The increase in other expenses compared with 2011 primarily reflected higher net provisions for litigation and regulatory proceedings and higher charitable contributions. Fourth QuarterNon-compensation expenses were $2.95 billion for the fourth quarter of 2012, 14% higher than the fourth quarter of 2011 and 24% higher than the third quarter of 2012. The increase compared with the fourth quarter of 2011 was due to higher other expenses. The increase in other expenses primarily reflected higher net provisions for litigation and regulatory proceedings and higher charitable contributions. The fourth quarter of 2012 included $260 million of net provisions for litigation and regulatory proceedings (including the settlement with the Federal Reserve Board regarding the independent foreclosure review) and $157 million of charitable contributions to Goldman Sachs Gives. The fourth quarter of 2011 included $47 million of net provisions for litigation and regulatory proceedings and $78 million of charitable contributions to Goldman Sachs Gives. Compensation was reduced in both 2012 and 2011 to fund the charitable contribution to Goldman Sachs Gives. Provision for Taxes The effective income tax rate for 2012 was 33.3%, essentially unchanged from 33.5% for the first nine months of 2012 and up from 28.0% for 2011. The increase from 28.0% to 33.3% was primarily due to the earnings mix and a decrease in the impact of permanent benefits.