Operating expense ratio is calculated by dividing operating expenses (other expenses net of capitalization of DAC) by premiums, fees and other revenues (operating).MetLife believes the presentation of operating earnings and operating earnings available to common shareholders as MetLife measures it for management purposes enhances the understanding of the company’s performance by highlighting the results of operations and the underlying profitability drivers of the business. Operating revenues, operating expenses, operating earnings, operating earnings available to common shareholders, operating earnings available to common shareholders per diluted common share, book value per common share, excluding AOCI, book value per diluted common share, excluding AOCI, operating return on MetLife, Inc.’s common equity, operating return on MetLife, Inc.’s common equity, excluding AOCI, investment portfolio gains (losses) and derivative gains (losses) should not be viewed as substitutes for the following financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP: GAAP revenues, GAAP expenses, GAAP income (loss) from continuing operations, net of income tax, GAAP net income (loss) available to MetLife, Inc.'s common shareholders, GAAP net income (loss) available to MetLife, Inc.'s common shareholders per diluted common share, book value per common share, book value per diluted common share, return on MetLife, Inc.’s common equity, return on MetLife, Inc.’s common equity, excluding AOCI, net investment gains (losses) and net derivative gains (losses), respectively. For the historical periods presented, reconciliations of non-GAAP measures used in this press release to the most directly comparable GAAP measures may be included in an Appendix to the presentation materials and/or are on the Investor Relations portion of our Internet website. Additional information about our historical results is also available on our Internet website in our Quarterly Financial Supplements for the corresponding periods. Managed Assets (as defined below) is a financial measure based on methodologies other than GAAP. MetLife utilizes “Managed Assets” to describe assets in its investment portfolio which are actively managed and reflected at estimated fair value. MetLife believes the use of Managed Assets enhances the understanding and comparability of its investment portfolio by excluding assets such as policy loans, other invested assets, mortgage loans held-for-sale, and mortgage loans held by consolidated securitization entities, as substantially all of those assets are not actively managed in MetLife’s investment portfolio. Trading and other securities are also excluded as this amount is primarily comprised of contractholder-directed unit-linked investments, where the contractholder, and not the company, directs the investment of these funds. Mortgage loans and certain real estate investments have also been adjusted from carrying value to estimated fair value.