Costs Associated with IP Collaboration Agreement.In order to gain access to a third party's extensive speech recognition technology and natural language and semantic processing technology, Nuance has entered into three IP collaboration agreements, with terms ranging between five and six years. Depending on the agreement, some or all intellectual property derived from these collaborations will be jointly owned by the two parties. For the majority of the developed intellectual property, Nuance will have sole rights to commercialize such intellectual property for periods ranging between two to six years, depending on the agreement. For non-GAAP purposes, Nuance considers these long-term contracts and the resulting acquisitions of intellectual property from this third-party over the agreements’ terms to be an investing activity, outside of its normal, organic, continuing operating activities, and is therefore presenting this supplemental information to show the results excluding these expenses. Nuance does not exclude from its non-GAAP results the corresponding revenue, if any, generated from these collaboration efforts. Although the Company's bonus program and other performance-based incentives for executives are based on the non-GAAP results that exclude these costs, certain engineering senior management are responsible for execution and results of these collaboration agreements and have incentives based on those results. Non-Cash Expenses. The Company provides non-GAAP information relative to the following non-cash expenses: (i) stock-based compensation; (ii) certain accrued interest; and (iii) certain accrued income taxes. These items are further discussed as follows: (i) Stock-based compensation. Because of varying available valuation methodologies, subjective assumptions and the variety of award types, the Company believes that the exclusion of stock-based compensation allows for more accurate comparisons of operating results to peer companies, as well as to times in the Company’s history when stock-based compensation was more or less significant as a portion of overall compensation than in the current period. The Company evaluates performance both with and without these measures because compensation expense related to stock-based compensation is non-cash and the options and restricted awards granted are influenced by the Company’s stock price and other factors such as volatility that are beyond the Company’s control. The expense related to stock-based awards is generally not controllable in the short-term and can vary significantly based on the timing, size and nature of awards granted. As such, the Company does not include such charges in operating plans. Stock-based compensation will continue in future periods. (ii and iii) Certain accrued interest and income taxes. The Company also excludes certain accrued interest and certain accrued income taxes because the Company believes that excluding these non-cash expenses provides senior management, as well as other users of the financial statements, with a valuable perspective on the cash-based performance and health of the business, including the current near-term projected liquidity. These non-cash expenses will continue in future periods. Other Expenses. The Company excludes certain other expenses that are the result of unplanned events to measure operating performance and current and future liquidity both with and without these expenses; and therefore, by providing this information, the Company believes management and the users of the financial statements are better able to understand the financial results of what the Company considers to be its organic, continuing operations. Included in these expenses are items such as restructuring charges, asset impairments and other charges (credits), net. These events are unplanned and arise outside of the ordinary course of continuing operations. These items also include adjustments from changes in fair value of share-based instruments relating to the issuance of our common stock with security price guarantees payable in cash, and gains or losses on non-controlling strategic equity interests.