In the mid 1980's the emerging management practice was Quality Circles -- where teams were empowered to improve their work. In graduate school I interned for the QC program at Martin Marietta. After decades of factory worker complaints that management did not listen, Martin Marietta created a QC program. Yet, surprisingly, the new program encountered tremendous resistance. Workers told us that they did not want to be accountable for quality improvements -- that was a manager duty. Why the sudden reversal? Because employees saw their work environment changing without their consent and they reacted against the change.