Depreciation and amortisation in the first six months of the year (5,131 million euros) increased by 3.5% year-on-year (+2.5% in organic terms) mainly due to the amortisation of the new spectrum acquired in Germany, Brazil, Colombia, Spain and Mexico, and the increase of fixed assets. The depreciation and amortisation charges derived from purchase price allocation processes amounted to 492 million euros in the January-June period.In the first half of the year, operating income (OI) totalled 5,300 million euros (-16.5% year-on-year; -13.9% in underlying terms), with an improved trend in the second quarter (-15.3% year-on-year; -12.2% in underlying terms). Profit from associates stood at -498 million euros in the first semester (-534 million euros during the same period in 2011), mainly due to Telco, S.p.A.'s adjustment of the value of its investment in Telecom Italia, as well as of the operating synergies achieved, with both effects totalling 512 million euros in 2012 and 505 million euros in 2011. It should be pointed out that these effects were non-cash impacts. Financial position Net financial expenses in the first half of 2012 reached 1,585 million euros, of which 20 million euros were negative foreign exchange differences. This yielded an effective cost of debt of 5.82% in the last 12 months (5.22% at December 31st 2011). Excluding foreign exchange differences, the effective cost of debt would be 5.47% compared to 4.91% at December 31st 2011. Free Cash Flow for the first half of the year amounted to 1,727 million euros, posting an improvement of 1,645 million de euros compared to the first quarter of 2012, in line with Company estimates. At the end of June 2012, net financial debt amounted to 58,310. The evolution with respect to December 2011 (+2,006 million euros) can be explained, on the one hand, by shareholder remuneration (3,551 million euros), not fully compensated by the debt reduction in Colombia (1,499 million euros) due to the merger of the Colombian subsidiaries. The leverage ratio for the past 12 months (net debt over OIBDA, adjusted by the provision related to the redundancy program in Spain), stood at 2.65 times as of end of June 2012. If net commitments related to workforce reduction are considered, the ratio of total net debt plus commitments over OIBDA (excluding results on the sale of fixed assets and adjusted by the provision related to the redundancy program in Spain) stood at 2.85 times. Financing activity During the first half of 2012, Telefónica's financing activity, excluding short-term Commercial Paper Programmes activity, stood slightly over 8,000 million equivalent euros, and the main focus was on financing in advance debt maturing in 2012, and smoothing the debt maturity profile for 2013 at the Holding level. At the end of June 2012, bonds and debentures represented 63% of consolidated financial debt breakdown, while debt with financial institutions weighted 37%.