And each taste modality has its own individual cells. So there is a sweet cell or sour cell or salt cell et cetera and at the very end of these cells is a receptor and the receptor fits on the surface of the tongue. And so when a taste comes and activates or blocks that receptor, it sends a signal to the brain that you're tasting something sweet or something sour, whatever the case maybe.

So we use this physiology to discover either flavors which activate the receptor or flavor modulators, maybe idea is being to block bitter taste or enhance sweet taste. So to give you just a little bit more idea what it is that we do at Senomyx in terms of science, we have some animation that we'll go through.

Cath Bovenizer

Talin enhancer can actually reduce the amount of sweetener required in a product. Let's take a brief look at the physiology of taste. Taste buds are located at the front, back and far side to the tongue as depicted by the arrows. The surface of the tongue has several thousand taste buds located within small protrusions called papillae.

Each of the taste buds is comprised of about 50 to 100 taste cells. Each taste cells is specialized to recognize one of the five primary senses of taste which are sour, bitter, the taste of salt, savory also known as umami and sweet taste.

We'll take a look at the sweet cell to see how it functions. The tips of the sweet cells have proteins and service receptors for sweet taste sense such as sucrose or sucralose. We'll zoom in to see the receptors structure and function.

The sweet receptors have hinge structures known as Venus Flytrap that have a binding site for the sweetener, and as Senomyx discovered, a binding site for an enhancer. When a high amount of sucrose is present, the receptors are exposed to many sugar molecules. The high concentration of sugar causes a majority of receptors to close and become activated.

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