Marange diamonds could be a game changer for Zimbabwe and for the diamond industry. In a nation desperate for revenue and investment, diamonds could equate to an important economic solution. For the diamond industry, which is seeing a growing demand for low-quality small diamonds, the supply from Zimbabwe could mean stiff competition. But, the outcome largely depends on the government. According to the Kimberley Process (KP), about 90 percent of Marange diamonds are coarse, very low quality, and range in color from dark green to dark brown and black. Their uniqueness allegedly makes them unmistakable. About ten percent of Marange diamonds are gem quality or near gem quality, with greenish and brown colors. Their features are not unique and they are comparable to diamonds found in other countries. The KP oversees a certification scheme (KPCS) which aims to ensure that rough diamonds are conflict-free and that conflict diamonds do not enter legitimate trade. In November, the group endorsed the export of Marange diamonds, allowing Zimbabwe an opportunity to establish a potentially lucrative diamond industry. Marange diamonds tarnished The controversy that has kept Marange diamonds off the market until recently goes back to 2006, when the government encouraged free-for-all diamond mining, which led to a diamond rush and subsequent reports of rampant smuggling. Such a situation, where people are allowed to dig at will, is a violation of KP minimum standards, which state that diamond mining must be regulated and controlled. However, efforts to mop up that mess only resulted in a much larger one. Police forces were initially given the responsibility of clearing and securing the area. Their operations led to allegations of human rights abuse, corruption, extortion, and continued smuggling. Defense forces were later ordered to the scene, aggravating the matter further as soldiers were accused of inappropriate behavior such as dealing diamonds illicitly, using forced labor and child labor to mine diamonds, and killing about 200 people.