A year and a half of research on the subject of mutual funds brought him to the conviction that these funds should be mutual in reality as well as spirit. Vanguard would stake its banner as a champion of shareholders and their interests. Today, Vanguard is the No. 2 fund family in the nation. Aside from being a leader in the mutual fund universe, the company boasts nearly 40 ETF instruments including the Vanguard MSCI Emerging Markets Index USD ( VWO), Vanguard Total Stock Market ETF ( VTI) and Vanguard Financials ETF ( VFH). Again and again, the appeal of Vanguard has been to the sense and sensitivity of its shareholders. What they preach is keep it simple, keep it straight and keep the costs down. As the financial universe has expanded to include flashy, fast growing funds, Bogle and Vanguard have stuck to their guns by providing simple, low-cost instruments that ensure investors with strong, stable returns for the long term. By keeping the interests of the individual investors at the forefront of every action, The Vanguard Group and Bogle have become the conscience of the mutual fund and ETF industries. Financial institutions and individual ETF investors alike can take something from the Bogle and Vanguard story. Today, the government is constantly breathing down the necks of ETF companies that offer high leveraged, complex ETFs such as Direxion Financial Bear 3X ( FAZ); Direxion Financial Bull 3X ( FAS); and United States Natural Gas ( UNG) due to their underperformance and excessive risk. Meanwhile, the low-cost, simple ETFs and mutual funds such as the ones offered by Vanguard have provided investors with comfortable returns over the same period.