Ten years ago, a massive earthquake rolled under the Japanese city of Kobe at dawn, toppling 140,000 buildings, causing 300 major fires, killing more than 5,000 people and leaving 300,000 homeless. To help cover the story for the Los Angeles Times, I left my wife to care for our 10-day-old daughter and flew into the city with a small team of Los Angeles-based trauma doctors and nurses. We found a surreal, smoking ruin of a city with roads twisted like coils of rope, high-rises tilted at Dr. Seuss angles and thousands of middle-class families jammed into dingy, ice-cold rooms in the few public buildings left standing. Just as in the tsunami zone of south Asia this month, the immediate health danger, besides a possible outbreak of disease, was a lack of fresh water. More than 75% of the city's water supply was destroyed when underground pipes fractured. As much as they desired pallets of drugs, food, blankets and tents sent from throughout Japan and abroad, the Kobe survivors coveted -- and needed -- clean, bottled water for cooking, drinking and bathing. Both incidents are a stark reminder that water is our most precious resource. Because it is seemingly ubiquitous in the U.S., it is taken for granted. Massive snowstorms in California this month have loaded up the snowpack that provides water there, and rains in the Southeast are filling reservoirs in that part of the country. The rest of the world, however, is not so fortunate.
Not Making Any More WaterThere is no more fresh water on Earth today than there was 1 million years ago. Yet today, 6 billion people share it. Since 1950, the world population has doubled, but water use has tripled, notes John Dickerson, an analyst and fund manager based in San Diego. Unlike petroleum, he adds, no technological innovation can ever replace water. China, which is undergoing a vast rural-to-urban population migration, is emblematic of the places where water has become scarce. It has about as much water as Canada but 100 times more people. Per-capita water reserves are only about one-fourth the global average, according to experts. Of its 669 cities, 440 regularly suffer moderate to critical water shortages. Although not widely appreciated, water has been recognized by conservative investors as an investment opportunity -- and it has rewarded them. Over the past 10 years, the Media General water utilities index is up 133%, double the return of the Dow Jones Utilities Index. Over the past five years, water utilities are up 32% -- clobbering the flat returns of both the Dow Jones Utilities and the Dow Industrials. One of water's key long-term value drivers as an investment, according to Dickerson: Demand is not affected by inflation, recession, interest rates or changing tastes. Virtually all of the U.S. water utility stocks are regulated by states and counties, which makes them pretty dull. Governmental entities typically give utilities a monopoly in a geographic region, then set their profit margin a smidge above costs. Just about the only distinguishing factor among them are the growth rates of their regions and their ability to efficiently manage their underground pipe and pumping infrastructure. Among the best are Aqua America ( WTR) of Philadelphia, Southwest Water of Los Angeles, California Water Service Group ( CWT), based in San Jose, Calif.; and American States Water ( AWR) of San Dimas, Calif. In a moment, I'll offer a couple of potentially more impactful ways to invest in water, but first let's look a little more broadly at world demand.
Indian Aquifers in India Are Being Sucked DryThe tsunami has focused attention on water demand in South Asia. That's a good thing, as it was already reaching critical status in rural areas. Several decades ago, farmers in the Indian state of Gujarat used oxen to haul water in buckets from a few feet below the surface. Now they pump it from 1,000 feet below the surface. That may sound good, but they have been drawing water from the earth to feed a mushrooming population at such a terrific rate that ancient aquifers have been sucked dry -- turning once-fertile fields slowly into sand. According to New Scientist magazine, farmers using crude oilfield technology in India have drilled 21 million "tube wells" into the strata beneath the fields, and every year millions more wells throughout the region -- all the way to Vietnam -- are being dug to service water-needy crops like rice and sugar cane. The magazine quoted research from the annual Stockholm Water Symposium that the pumps that transformed Indian farming are drawing 200 cubic kilometers of water to the surface each year, while only a fraction is replaced by monsoon rains. At this rate, the research suggested, groundwater supplies in some areas will be exhausted in five to 10 years, and millions of Indians will see their farmland turned to desert. In China, the magazine reported, 30 cubic kilometers more water is being pumped to the surface each year than is replaced by rain -- one of the reasons that the country has become dependent on grain imports from the West. This is not just an issue for agriculture. Earlier this year, the Indian state of Kerala ordered the PepsiCo ( PEP - Get Report) and Coca-Cola ( KO - Get Report) bottling plants closed due to water shortages, costing the companies millions of dollars. In this country, shareholder activists already are lobbying companies to share water-dependency concerns worldwide with their stakeholders in their financial statements.
Water, Water Everywhere, but...The central problem is that less than 2% of the world's ample store of water is fresh. And that amount is bombarded by industrial pollution, disease and cyclical shifts in rain patterns. Its increasing scarcity has impelled private companies and countries to attempt to lock up rights to key sources. In an article last month, The Christian Science Monitor suggested that the next decade may see a cartel of water-exporting countries rivaling the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries for dominance in the world economy. "Water is blue gold; it's terribly precious," Maude Barlow, chairwoman of the Council of Canadians, told the Monitor. "Not too far in the future, we're going to see a move to surround and commodify the world's fresh water. Just as they've divvied up the world's oil, in the coming century, there's going to be a grab." Besides the domestic water utilities listed above -- and similarly plodding foreign utilities such as United Utilities of the U.K., which sports a 6.9% dividend yield, and Suez of France -- investors interested in the sector can consider a number of variant plays. None are extremely exciting, but my guess is that, over the next few years, some more interesting purification technologies will emerge, along with, perhaps, a vibrant attempt at worldwide industry consolidation. One current idea is Tennessee-based copper pipe and valve maker Mueller Industries ( MLI - Get Report), a $1 billion business with a trailing price/earnings multiple of 15 that is still not expensive despite a 47% run-up in the past year. Its leading outside investor is Berkshire Hathaway ( BRK.A), the investment vehicle of legendary investor Warren Buffett. Another is flow-control products maker Watts Water Technologies ( WTS - Get Report), which is a little richer at a $975 million market cap and a trailing P/E multiple of 19, but is still owned by several leading value managers, including Mario Gabelli. And possibly the most interesting is Consolidated Water ( CWCO - Get Report), a $160 million company based in the Cayman Islands that specializes in developing and operating ocean-water desalinization plants and water-distribution systems in areas where natural supplies of drinking water are scarce, such as the Caribbean and South America. It currently supplies water to Belize, Barbados, the British Virgin Islands and the Bahamas, and it has expansion plans. It is the most expensive, but it may also have the greatest growth prospects. Of all of these, it is up the most over the past five years, a relatively steady 355%. Of course, there is one other benefit to water investing: When these companies say they're going to do a dilutive deal, it's not something to worry about.
Please note that due to factors including low market capitalization and/or insufficient public float, we consider Southwest Water, American States Water and Consolidated Water to be small-cap stocks. You should be aware that such stocks are subject to more risk than stocks of larger companies, including greater volatility, lower liquidity and less publicly available information, and that postings such as this one can have an effect on their stock prices.