Old Crop, New CropWhile financial assets can be created quickly and, in the case of Treasury bonds, in vast quantities, crops require a growing season. They're produced in limited quantities and are subject to production uncertainties, both within a given growing zone and on a global crop basis. A production shortfall in the Southern Hemisphere affects global inventories and prices during the Northern Hemisphere's growing season, and vice versa. When this situation occurs, the price for existing inventories, or the old crop, rises relative to the price of the crop in the field or yet to be planted, called the new crop. Given the inability of suppliers to deliver new-crop grain into an old-crop month -- how could the corn crop for 2004, which has not been planted yet, be delivered to anyone yet? -- the spread between the old crop and the new crop can expand dramatically. In metals and energy, this spread is referred to as backwardation; in grains, livestock and other physical commodities, it is called an inverse.
The inverse in corn in 1996 between July (CN), the last old-crop month, and December (CZ), the first new-crop month, widened quite sharply during the late spring of 1996. Significantly for financial markets, the CRB index of commodity prices, a measure watched widely for inflationary pressures, widened along with the inverse.
|Source: CRB-Infotech |
The expansion and subsequent contraction of the CRB index along with the corn inverse was an artifact of the index's calculation. The corn component of the 17-commodity index is an arithmetic average of all futures prices that expire on or before the sixth calendar month from the current date. For corn now, this would include the contract months of March, May, July and September, but not December. For soybeans now, this would include March, May, July, August and September, but not November, the new-crop month for soybeans. Both markets are inverted heavily at present.
|Source: Bloomberg |
Commodity Price ImplicationsThe much lower new-crop prices, which could turn higher if the weather doesn't cooperate, will not join the CRB index calculations until May for soybeans and June for corn. Given the inability of anyone to create additional old-crop soybeans and the tendency of buyers to wait for the last minute to assure themselves of a supply -- thank you, just-in-time inventory management -- the prospects for a continuation of a soybean-led rise in the CRB through May remains strong. Once November, now trading at 78% of March's price, joins the calculation, the CRB will fall and send what no doubt will be construed as a disinflationary or even deflationary signal to financial markets.
|Source: CRB-Infotech |
Beans and BondsThere was a time when soybeans were considered -- improperly in my opinion -- the ultimate barometer of inflationary pressure. In fact, many commodity traders in the 1970s traded silver off of soybeans, and vice versa. There was also a time when the commodity price increases seen over the past year would have triggered either an actual Federal Reserve tightening of credit or certainly an anticipatory selloff in bonds. Neither has occurred, and neither is expected to occur in the near future. After all, the very same monetary policies are pushing both commodities and bonds higher simultaneously, though one must wonder whether the low federal funds rate would keep bond yields low if it wasn't for the large purchases by Asian central banks.
|Source: CRB-Infotech and the Federal Reserve |