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How ETFs Have Changed Investing

Investors have more and less risky options to put money where they want.

ETFs have come a long way in changing the investing landscape since the first one hit the market in 1993.

ETFs enable individual investors to engage in investing strategies that are more sophisticated than ever before. Many of these strategies wouldn't have been feasible from a practical standpoint 15 years ago for most investors.

"With the broad array of ETFs' investment guidelines, there are so many things that you can do with them now," says Ed McRedmond, Senior Vice President of portfolio strategies for Invesco PowerShares.

Betting on the Bears

For example, ETFs now make it much easier for an investor to take a bearish position or hedge against downside risk. An inverse ETF such as the

Short S&P 500 ProShares Fund

(SH) - Get ProShares Short S&P500 Report

is designed to deliver a performance that is the opposite of the index that it tracks.

"In the past you would have had to buy protective puts or sell short," says Rich Romey, President of ETF Portfolio Solutions. "And if you went short, you had unlimited risk. Now with ETFs, your maximum possible loss is what you invest."

What if an investor is feeling generally bullish, but is wary of the prospects of a specific sector such as financials? Romey presents a strategy using ETFs to play off this sentiment.

"If you put $100,000 into an

S&P 500

-tracking ETF such as the


(SPY) - Get SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust Report

or the

TheStreet Recommends

iShares S&P 500 Index

(IVV) - Get iShares Core S&P 500 ETF Report

, but think financials will be a drag, you could then put an investment equal to one-half the weight of the financials -- or about $8,500 -- into the

UltraShort Financials ProShares Fund

(SKF) - Get ProShares UltraShort Financials Report

," he says. "Because the fund returns twice the inverse of the financials, now you have effectively removed the financial piece from your holding."

Active Management

PowerShares recently launched a series of actively managed ETFs that include the

PowerShares Active Low Duration Fund


, the

PowerShares Active Mega Cap Fund


, the

PowerShares Active AlphaQ Fund


and the

PowerShares Active Alpha Multi-Cap Fund



XShares Advisors and

State Street

(STT) - Get State Street Corporation Report

have also recently launched similar products.

Previously, investors who wanted a vehicle that coupled instant diversification with the skill of a portfolio manager would often look to mutual funds. Now, they have the option of utilizing actively-managed ETFs to accomplish this strategy.

"In the past, ETFs had to track an index," McRedmond says. "Now with actively-managed ETFs, there are more options for portfolio managers. This flexibility gives investors the opportunity to try to outperform benchmark indexes."

Access Granted

The evolution of ETFs has enabled investors to enter areas of the market, such as commodities and preferred equities, where access was limited in the past.

"We have seen a pretty good pickup in interest in preferred stock ETFs," McRedmond says.

Last year, his company introduced the

PowerShares Financial Preferred Fund

(PGF) - Get Invesco Financial Preferred ETF Report

which has top holdings that include preferred classes of stock from

Royal Bank of Scotland

(RBS) - Get Royal Bank of Scotland Group Plc Report


Merrill Lynch



Goldman Sachs

(GS) - Get Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Report



(WB) - Get Weibo Corp. Report


"It can be viewed as a less aggressive way to play the recovery of financials," he says. "It typically pays a monthly dividend that is viewed by the street as attractive for an investment grade portfolio."

iShares also has an ETF that is focused around preferred offerings. The

iShares S&P U.S. Preferred Stock Index

(PFF) - Get iShares Preferred & Income Securities ETF Report

has a yield comparable to its PowerShares counterpart and has preferred classes of stock from


(F) - Get Ford Motor Company Report



(C) - Get Citigroup Inc. Report


Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold

(FCX) - Get Freeport-McMoRan, Inc. Report

among its top holdings.

Plays on the Dollar

The weakening of the U.S. dollar has captured its fair share of media coverage in 2008. The fluctuation has also drawn attention to ETFs that are plays on the dollar.

"I think that currency ETFs are going to be huge in the future," Romey says.

One currency ETF in particular that Romey finds attractive is the

PowerShares DB U.S. Dollar Index Bullish

(UUP) - Get Invesco DB US Dollar Index Bullish Fund Report


"I think the worst is just about over for the dollar," he says.

Billy Fisher owns shares of Wachovia.