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Economist and financial advisor to international institutions, national governments, and private sector financial institutions. He has been executive director of the World Bank Group and board member of the IMF; head of the Public Investment Evaluation Office, at Italy's Presidency of the Council of Ministers; chairman of the Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino and chairman of the San Marino Banking Association; senior advisor to the Finance Vice Presidency of the World Bank, and head of the International payments division at the Bank of Italy. He has been a member of several international central bank groupings. He has taught at the universities of Palermo and Salento. He is the (co-)author of several studies and publications on economics, finance and economic development. He has been advisor to the High-Level Commission on World Bank Reform (the "Zedillo" Commission).