The foreign provision for income taxes is based on foreign pre-tax earnings of $30.5 billion, $36.8 billion and $24.0 billion in 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The Company's consolidated financial statements provide for any related tax liability on undistributed earnings that the Company does not intend to be indefinitely reinvested outside the U.S. Substantially all of the Company's undistributed international earnings intended to be indefinitely reinvested in operations outside the U.S. were generated by subsidiaries organized in Ireland, which has a statutory tax rate of 12.5%. As of September 28, 2013, U.S. income taxes have not been provided on a cumulative total of $54.4 billion of such earnings. The amount of unrecognized deferred tax liability related to these temporary differences is estimated to be approximately $18.4 billion.
As of September 28, 2013 and September 29, 2012, $111.3 billion and $82.6 billion, respectively, of the Company's cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities were held by foreign subsidiaries and are generally based in U.S. dollar-denominated holdings. Amounts held by foreign subsidiaries are generally subject to U.S. income taxation on repatriation to the U.S.
The Company's other non-current liabilities in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets consist primarily of deferred tax liabilities, gross unrecognized tax benefits and the related gross interest and penalties. As of March 29, 2014, the Company had non-current deferred tax liabilities of $19.5 billion. Additionally, as of March 29, 2014, the Company had gross unrecognized tax benefits of $3.0 billion and an additional $590 million for gross interest and penalties classified as non-current liabilities. At this time, the Company is unable to make a reasonably reliable estimate of the timing of payments due to uncertainties in the timing of tax audit outcomes.
In addition, the calculation of tax liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of GAAP and complex tax laws. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with management's expectations could have a material impact on the Company's financial condition and operating results.
The Company is subject to taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions, including Ireland, where a number of the Company's subsidiaries are organized. Due to economic and political conditions, tax rates in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change. The Company's future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation, including in the U.S. and Ireland. The Company is also subject to the examination of its tax returns and other tax matters by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities and governmental bodies. The Company regularly assesses the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of its provision for taxes. There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations. If the Company's effective tax rates were to increase, particularly in the U.S. or Ireland, or if the ultimate determination of the Company's taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, the Company's operating results, cash flows, and financial condition could be adversely affected.