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The SPE-166113-MS paper, "A Day in the Life of a Barrel of Water: Evaluating Total Life Cycle Cost of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids," will be presented by
Robin Watts, Oil & Gas Technology manager of
Linde LLC, in the
Tuesday, October 1, session on Fluid and Environmental Considerations. In her paper, Watts examines the total life cycle costs of hydraulic fracturing fluids, comparing water-based and energized solutions. She also evaluates when fracturing fluids energized with carbon dioxide (CO
2) or nitrogen (N
2) can be used to reduce water volume for more economical hydraulic fracturing. It also evaluates how the selected fracturing fluid can affect productivity.
"In certain situations, the increased productivity achieved with energized solutions can more than offset lower per-barrel water costs, driving a lower overall unit cost of production," Watts says in her paper. Watts will also demonstrate how simple economic assessment tools developed by Linde can help producers estimate the potential economic impact of using different fracturing fluids by including estimates for a variety of cost and productivity factors over the entire life cycle of the well:
Simple Calculator Tool -- for comparing estimated total cost of options, including acquisition, management and disposal calculations
Productivity Simulator Tool -- for comparing estimated productivity factor of hydraulic fracturing fluid options, fully accounting for the phase behavior and compositional changes of an energized fluid
Hydraulic fracturing requires 2.5 to 5 million gallons of water per well, and water acquisition, management and disposal represent major costs for producers. Linde's energized solutions, using CO
2 or N
2, allow producers to reduce the total volume of fluid needed for hydraulic fracturing by up to half, reducing costs while improving productivity, safety and environmental impact. "Linde's life cycle calculator tool and the simulation tool examining the productivity implications of different fluid options can help producers make better decisions on how to best manage their water needs," Watts said.
More information on how energized solutions can reduce water use and improve productivity and Linde's Calculator and Productivity Simulator tools can be found in a white paper version of "A Day in the Life of a Barrel of Water" on Linde's oil and gas services website -
About The Linde Group
Linde LLC is an affiliate of
Linde North America, a member of The Linde Group, a world-leading gases and engineering company with around 62,000 employees in more than 100 countries worldwide. In the 2012 financial year, Linde generated revenue of
EUR 15.280 bn (
USD 19.9 bn). The strategy of The Group is geared towards long-term profitable growth and focuses on the expansion of its international business with forward-looking products and services. Linde acts responsibly towards its shareholders, business partners, employees, society and the environment – in every one of its business areas, regions and locations across the globe. The company is committed to technologies and products that unite the goals of customer value and sustainable development.
For more information, see The Linde Group online at
Linde North America