The primary endpoint of the study was the mean change in A1c levels from baseline to week 24 between the two groups. Over the 24-week treatment period, mean A1c levels decreased by 0.82% in the AFREZZA group compared to a decrease of 0.42% in the comparator oral-therapy group. The between-group difference in change in mean A1c levels was statistically significant (p<0.0001), thereby establishing the superiority of AFREZZA over the comparator oral-therapy treatment.
A significantly greater percentage of patients in the AFREZZA group reached specified A1c target levels than in the comparator oral-therapy group. After 24 weeks of treatment, 37.7% of patients in the AFREZZA group achieved A1c levels below 7.0% compared to only 19.0% of patients in the comparator oral-therapy group (p=0.0005), and 15.9% of patients in the AFREZZA group achieved A1c levels below 6.5% compared to only 4.2% of the patients receiving only oral therapy (p=0.0021).
During the treatment period, postprandial glucose excursions were reduced in the AFREZZA group compared to those in the comparator oral-therapy group. By week 24, mean blood glucose levels did not exceed 170.2 mg/dL postprandially in the AFREZZA group whereas mean blood glucose levels reached as high as 194.7 mg/dL postprandially in the comparator oral-therapy group.Over the treatment period, mean fasting blood glucose levels decreased moderately in the AFREZZA group by 11.2 mg/dL compared to a decrease of 3.8 mg/dL in the comparator oral-therapy group. This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.1698). Patients in the AFREZZA group gained an average of 0.49 kg over the treatment period compared to an average loss of 1.13 kg by patients in the comparator oral-therapy group (p<0.0001). As expected, the incidence of mild and moderate hypoglycemia was higher in the AFREZZA group (67.2% of patients) compared to the comparator oral-therapy group (30.1% of patients; p<0.0001). However, there was not a significant difference in the incidence of severe hypoglycemia, which was reported in nine (5.1%) AFREZZA patients compared to three (1.7%) oral-therapy patients (p=0.0943).