The proportion of subjects achieving A1c target levels ≤7.0% or ≤6.5% at the end of the 24-week treatment period was less in the AFREZZA-Gen2 group than in the insulin aspart group; however, among patients who achieved A1c levels ≤7.0% and ≤6.5% at the end of the 24-week treatment period, the event rates for overall hypoglycemia (mild, moderate and severe) were all significantly lower in the AFREZZA-Gen2 group than in the insulin aspart group.
There was also a significant difference in weight outcomes. Patients in the AFREZZA-Gen2 group lost an average of 0.39 kg over the treatment period compared to an average gain of 0.93 kg in the insulin aspart group (p=0.0102).
The main safety objective of this study was to compare changes in FEV 1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) from randomization to week 24 between the AFREZZA-Gen2 and AFREZZA-MedTone groups. Over this period, there was an insignificant difference of 0.01 L in mean change in FEV 1 between the two AFREZZA groups (p=0.5364). Over the same 24-week treatment period, the decrease in FEV 1 seen in the AFREZZA-Gen2 group was slightly greater than that seen in the aspart group (0.03 L). After cessation of the treatment period, FEV 1 values in both AFREZZA groups increased, so that by the follow-up visit at week 28 there were virtually no differences in FEV 1 among the three treatment groups.
In general, treatment with AFREZZA was well-tolerated over 24 weeks by subjects with type 1 diabetes. The incidence of serious adverse events related to study drug was similar in the AFREZZA-Gen2 (2.3%), AFREZZA-MedTone (2.9%) and insulin aspart (1.8%) groups. There were no serious cardiovascular events reported in this study. The most common drug-related adverse event was cough, reported by 30.5% of AFREZZA-Gen2 patients, 20.8% of AFREZZA-MedTone patients and 0% of insulin aspart patients. Cough was predominantly dry, intermittent, and usually occurred within 10 minutes of inhalation. The incidence of cough was highest during the first week of the treatment period and diminished quickly thereafter. The discontinuation rate due to cough was low (AFREZZA-Gen2: 5.7%; AFREZZA-MedTone: 2.9%; insulin aspart: 0%).