Adjusted income from operations, Adjusted net income attributable to Bloomin' Brands, Inc., Adjusted diluted earnings per share and Adjusted diluted earnings per pro forma share are non-GAAP measures calculated by eliminating from Income from operations, Net income and Diluted earnings per share the impact of items that are not considered indicative of ongoing operations including application of a normalized annual effective tax rate. The Company provides these non-GAAP measures because it believes they are useful for investors to assess the operating performance of the business without the effect of certain adjustments. For the periods presented, the non-GAAP adjustments include transaction-related expenses for the completion of a secondary offering of the Company's common stock and the refinancing of long-term debt, management fees paid to the management company associated with the Company's sponsors and founders, losses incurred on the extinguishment and modification of long-term debt and an adjustment to the (Benefit) provision for income taxes based on a normalized annual effective tax rate for periods in 2013 and the effective tax rate for periods in 2012. In addition, Adjusted diluted earnings per pro forma share gives effect to the issuance of shares in the Company's IPO as if they were all outstanding on January 1, 2012.
The use of these measures permits a comparative assessment of the Company's operating performance relative to its performance based on U.S. GAAP results, while isolating the effects of certain items that vary from period to period without correlation to core operating performance or that vary widely among similar companies. However, the inclusion of these adjusted measures should not be construed as an indication that future results will be unaffected by unusual or infrequent items or that the items for which the adjustments have been made are unusual or infrequent. In the future, the Company may incur expenses or generate income similar to the adjusted items. The Company further believes that the disclosure of these non-GAAP measures is useful to investors as they form the basis for how the Company's management team and Board of Directors evaluate the Company's performance including for achievement of objectives under the Company's cash and equity compensation plans. By disclosing these non-GAAP measures, the Company believes that it is providing for investors a greater understanding of, and an enhanced level of transparency into, the means by which the management team operates the business.