These closed-end funds are no longer offered as an initial public offering, and shares are only offered through broker/dealers on the secondary market. Unlike an open-end mutual fund, a closed-end fund offers a fixed number of shares for sale. After the initial public offering, shares are bought and sold in the secondary marketplace, and the market price of the shares is determined by supply and demand, not by net asset value (NAV), and is often lower than the NAV. A closed-end fund is not required to buy its shares back from investors upon request.
High-yield, lower-rated bonds may contain more risk due to the increased possibility of default. Foreign investments may contain more risk due to the inherent risks associated with changing political climates, foreign market instability, and foreign currency fluctuations. Risks of international investing are magnified in emerging or developing markets. Funds that concentrate their investments in a single industry or sector may face increased risk of price fluctuation over more diversified funds due to adverse developments within that industry or sector. Nondiversified funds may face increased risk of price fluctuation over more diversified funds due to adverse developments within certain sectors. Small- and mid-cap securities may be subject to special risks associated with narrower product lines and limited financial resources compared with their large-cap counterparts. The use of leverage results in certain risks, including, among others, the likelihood of greater volatility of NAV and the market price of common shares. Derivatives involve additional risks, including interest-rate risk, credit risk, the risk of improper valuation, and the risk of noncorrelation to the relevant instruments they are designed to hedge or to closely track. There are numerous risks associated with transactions in options on securities. Illiquid securities may be subject to wide fluctuations in market value and may be difficult to sell.