We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) before any non-operating expenses, including net interest expense, depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation expense, gain or loss on exchange or sale of assets or stations (if any), any realized gain or loss on derivative instruments, any impairment of intangible assets and goodwill, local marketing agreement ("LMA") fees, acquisition-related costs and franchise taxes.
Adjusted EBITDA is the financial metric utilized by management to analyze the cash flow generated by our business. This measure isolates the amount of income generated by our radio stations after the incurrence of corporate general and administrative expenses. Management also uses this measure to determine the contribution of our radio station portfolio, including the corporate resources employed to manage the portfolio, to the funding of our other operating expenses and to the funding of debt service and acquisitions. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA is a key metric for purposes of calculating and determining our compliance with certain covenants contained in our first lien credit facility.
In deriving this measure, management excludes depreciation, amortization and stock-based compensation expense from the measure, as these do not represent cash payments for activities directly related to the operation of the radio stations. In addition, we exclude LMA fees from our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA, even though such fees require a cash settlement, because they are excluded from the definition of Adjusted EBITDA contained in our first lien credit facility. Management excludes any gain or loss on the exchange or sale of assets or radio stations as they do not represent a cash transaction. Management also excludes any realized gain or loss on derivative instruments as they do not represent a cash transaction nor are they associated with radio station operations. Interest expense, net of interest income, income tax (benefit) expense including franchise taxes, and expenses relating to acquisitions are also excluded from the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA as they are not directly related to the operation of radio stations. Management excludes any impairment of goodwill and intangible assets as they do not require a cash outlay. Management believes that Adjusted EBITDA, although not a measure that is calculated in accordance with GAAP, nevertheless is commonly employed by the investment community as a measure for determining the market value of a radio company. Management has also observed that Adjusted EBITDA is routinely employed to evaluate and negotiate the potential purchase price for radio broadcasting companies and is a key metric for purposes of calculating and determining compliance with certain covenants in our first lien credit facility. Given the relevance to our overall value, management believes that investors consider the metric to be extremely useful.
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