March 7, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc. and Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE:LLY) announced results of a study evaluating the efficacy of LIVALO
® (pitavastatin) 4 mg compared with pravastatin 40 mg in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in HIV-infected adults with high cholesterol, or dyslipidemia. The study was designed as a superiority trial for the primary endpoint, percent reduction in LDL-C, and evaluated HIV-infected adults with dyslipidemia; with and without viral Hepatitis B or C. The study met its primary endpoint.
Results showed that, after 12 weeks of therapy, pitavastatin had a significantly greater decrease in LDL-C compared with pravastatin (pitavastatin -49.4 mg/dL and pravastatin -33.6 mg/dL, 31% vs 21% reduction in LDL-C, respectively, p<0.001). The results were presented yesterday at a late-breaking poster presentation at the 20th Conference on Retroviruses & Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in
Dyslipidemia is common in people with HIV infection.
HIV-infected adults are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease due to many factors, including lipid abnormalities.
"We are pleased that the study objective was met, showing superiority of pitavastatin 4 mg to pravastatin 40 mg on LDL-C reduction in HIV-infected adults with dyslipidemia, and we look forward to further analysis of these data," said Dr.
, Vice President of Medical Affairs, Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.
Study investigator, Dr.
, Director of Virology, Bellevue Hospital Center and Director, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, NYU School of Medicine, said, "In HIV-infected patients with high cholesterol, data such as these represent an important step in understanding lipid management in this immunocompromised patient population."
The overall incidence of treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was 61.1% for pitavastatin and 62.7% for pravastatin. The most frequently reported TEAEs overall (in
2% of subjects in either treatment group) included diarrhea (13 subjects, 5.2%), upper respiratory tract infection (13 subjects, 5.2%), sinusitis (12 subjects, 4.8%), headache (10 subjects, 4.0%), nausea (10 subjects, 4.0%), nasopharyngitis (9 subjects, 3.6%), and blood creatine phosphokinase increased (8 subjects, 3.2%). Eleven subjects were discontinued from the study due to a TEAE (4.4%).
About the Study
In the 12-week, Phase 4, randomized (1:1), double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, parallel-group study, 252 patients were randomized to receive once-daily doses of pitavastatin 4 mg or pravastatin 40 mg. The primary efficacy analysis (ANCOVA) used percent change in LDL-C as the dependent variable, and treatment, site, and viral hepatitis B or C infection as independent variables. The major secondary lipid endpoints assessed were total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C and triglycerides. Safety assessments included adverse events, clinical/laboratory tests, HIV-1 RNA, CD4 count, and virologic failure.
LIVALO is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor indicated as an adjunctive therapy to diet to reduce elevated total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), triglycerides (TG), and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in adult patients with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia.
Limitations of Use:
- Doses of LIVALO greater than 4 mg once daily were associated with an increased risk for severe myopathy in premarketing clinical studies. Do not exceed 4 mg once daily dosing of LIVALO.
- The effect of LIVALO on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.
- LIVALO has not been studied in Fredrickson Type I, III, and V dyslipidemias.
In addition to being launched in the U.S. in
, LIVALO has been approved in
and 32 other countries as of
Primary Hyperlipidemia and Mixed Dyslipidemia
Primary hyperlipidemia is defined as an elevation of cholesterol, particularly "bad" cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), or both. Mixed dyslipidemia is usually characterized by an elevation of LDL-C, TG, and a decrease in the "good" cholesterol (HDL-C) in the blood.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION FOR LIVALO ® (pitavastatin) tablets
LIVALO is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to product components, in patients with active liver disease (which may include unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminase levels), in women who are pregnant or may become pregnant, in nursing mothers, or in co-administration with cyclosporine.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Skeletal Muscle Effects
Cases of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including LIVALO
. These risks can occur at any dose level, but increase in a dose-dependent manner.
Liver Enzyme Abnormalities
- LIVALO should be prescribed with caution in patients with predisposing factors for myopathy
- The risk of skeletal muscle effects (e.g., myopathy, and rhabdomyolysis) increases in a dose-dependent manner with advanced age ( >65 years), renal impairment, inadequately treated hypothyroidism, and in combination use with fibrates or lipid-modifying doses of niacin ( >1 g/day)
- LIVALO should be administered with caution in patients with impaired renal function, in elderly patients, or when used concomitantly with fibrates or lipid-modifying doses of niacin
- Concomitant administration of LIVALO with gemfibrozil should be avoided
- LIVALO therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. LIVALO therapy should also be temporarily withheld in any patient with an acute, serious condition suggestive of myopathy or predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis (e.g., sepsis; hypotension; dehydration; major surgery; trauma; severe metabolic, endocrine, and electrolyte disorders; or uncontrolled seizures)
- Advise patients to promptly report unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever, and to discontinue LIVALO if these signs or symptoms appear
- There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation; improvement with immunosuppressive agents. IMNM has not been reported with LIVALO therapy
- Advise patients to promptly report if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing LIVALO as this may be a sign of IMNM requiring immediate medical attention
Increases in serum transaminases have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including LIVALO.
- It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation of LIVALO and if signs or symptoms of liver injury occur
- There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including pitavastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with LIVALO, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found do not restart LIVALO
- Advise patients to promptly report any symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine or jaundice
- LIVALO should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol and/or have a history of chronic liver disease
Increases in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose levels have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including LIVALO.
In short-term controlled studies, the most frequent adverse reactions reported by
2% of patients treated with LIVALO 1 mg, 2 mg, and 4 mg, respectively, and at a rate
placebo were back pain (3.9%, 1.8%, 1.4% vs 2.9%), constipation (3.6%, 1.5%, 2.2% vs 1.9%), diarrhea (2.6%, 1.5%, 1.9% vs 1.9%), myalgia (1.9%, 2.8%, 3.1% vs 1.4%), and pain in extremity (2.3%, 0.6%, 0.9% vs 1.9%). This is not a complete listing of all reported adverse events.
For additional information please see the full Prescribing Information provided, or visit
LIV-RA-0058 PS82458 1/2013