Non-GAAP financial measures have limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, the Company’s GAAP results. The Company expects to continue reporting non-GAAP financial measures, adjusting for the items described below, and the Company expects to continue to incur expenses similar to the non-cash, non-GAAP adjustments described below. Accordingly, unless otherwise stated, the exclusion of these and other similar items in the presentation of non-cash, non-GAAP financial measures should not be construed as an inference that these costs are unusual, infrequent or non-recurring. Non-GAAP EPS and Adjusted EBITDA are not recognized terms under GAAP and do not purport to be an alternative to GAAP earnings/loss per share or operating income (loss) as an indicator of operating performance or any other GAAP measure. Moreover, because not all companies use identical measures and calculations, the presentation of non-GAAP EPS or Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies. These limitations are compensated for by management by using non-GAAP EPS and Adjusted EBITDA in conjunction with traditional GAAP operating performance and cash flow measures.
Non-GAAP EPS is defined as net income (loss) attributed to Clean Energy, plus stock-based compensation charges, net of related tax benefits, plus or minus any mark-to-market losses or gains on the Company’s Series I warrants, plus or minus the foreign currency losses or gains on the Company’s purchase notes issued as part of the acquisition of IMW, plus the valuation allowance established on certain deferred tax assets in the fourth quarter of 2011, plus the impairment of the Company’s cost method investment in The Vehicle Production Group LLC (VPG) in the fourth quarter of 2012 (VPG Investment Impairment), plus the Company’s settlement with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) related to certain vehicles in the fourth quarter of 2012 (CARB Settlement), and plus the Company’s settlement with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) over certain VETC revenues (IRS Settlement) in the fourth quarter of 2012, the total of which is divided by the Company’s weighted average shares outstanding on a diluted bases. The Company’s management believes that excluding non-cash charges related to stock-based compensation provides useful information to investors because of varying available valuation methodologies, the volatility of the expense (which depends on market forces outside of management’s control), and the subjectivity of the assumptions and the variety of award types that a company can use under the relevant accounting guidance may obscure trends in the Company’s core operating performance. Similarly, the Company’s management believes that excluding the non-cash, mark-to-market losses or gains on the Company’s Series I warrants is useful to investors because the valuation of the Series I warrants is based on a number of subjective assumptions, the amount of the loss or gain is derived from market forces outside management’s control, and it enables investors to compare our performance with other companies that have different capital structures. The Company’s management believes that excluding the foreign currency gains and losses on the notes it issued to purchase IMW provides useful information to investors as the amounts are based on market conditions outside of management’s control and the amounts relate to financing the acquisition of the business as opposed to the core operations of the Company. The Company excluded the valuation allowance amount, the VPG Investment Impairment, the CARB Settlement amount, and the IRS Settlement amount as they are not expected to occur again in the foreseeable future.