This Day On The Street
Continue to site
This account is pending registration confirmation. Please click on the link within the confirmation email previously sent you to complete registration.
Need a new registration confirmation email? Click here

Vanguard's Formula for Beating Mutual Fund Benchmarks

Why has Vanguard excelled? The biggest single reason is low fees. Vanguard's active equity funds charge average expense ratios of 0.37%, compared to 1.29% for the average domestic equity fund.

Many researchers have shown that cheap funds outdo expensive ones. Active managers tend to lag the benchmarks because of high fees. In its study, Vanguard argues that the best single predictor of future performance is low fees.

Vanguard has long charged less because of its unique corporate structure. While nearly every competitor is a profit-making business, Vanguard is a mutual company that is owned by its shareholders. Because it does not have to achieve profits, Vanguard can impose low fees.

In its study, Vanguard argues that part of the reason for the strong performance is the way the company selects portfolio managers. While fund companies such as Fidelity and T. Rowe Price hire employees to manage portfolios, Vanguard recruits outside freelancers known as subadvisers. Vanguard is the largest user of subadvisers, managing $350 billion with 30 outside firms.

Vanguard argues that because of its size and scale, the company can recruit the best subadvisers at cost-effective rates. Managers are typically paid fees that are less than 0.3% of assets, a percentage level that is well below industry averages.

The managers accept the modest compensation rates because they know that Vanguard subadvisers can generate rich income by overseeing huge portfolios. Another attraction is that Vanguard is a famously loyal employer, keeping the average subadviser for 13 years. If a subadviser delivers disappointing results for a couple of years, Vanguard does not fire the poor performer immediately. Instead, the company waits patiently for a recovery.

As an additional incentive, Vanguard pays performance-based fees. Under this system, managers who outdo their benchmarks receive extra payments. Those who underperform see their compensation reduced. Most managers hate performance fees, and only 3% of mutual funds use them. But Vanguard argues that the performance fees have been important factors in its success.

In its study, Vanguard repeats the boilerplate that past performance does not guarantee future success. Still, there are good reasons to believe that the company's effective system will continue providing actively managed funds that outdo the benchmarks.
Stan Luxenberg is a freelance writer specializing in mutual funds and investing. He was executive editor of Individual Investor magazine.
2 of 2

Check Out Our Best Services for Investors

Action Alerts PLUS

Portfolio Manager Jim Cramer and Director of Research Jack Mohr reveal their investment tactics while giving advanced notice before every trade.

Product Features:
  • $2.5+ million portfolio
  • Large-cap and dividend focus
  • Intraday trade alerts from Cramer
Quant Ratings

Access the tool that DOMINATES the Russell 2000 and the S&P 500.

Product Features:
  • Buy, hold, or sell recommendations for over 4,300 stocks
  • Unlimited research reports on your favorite stocks
  • A custom stock screener
Stocks Under $10

David Peltier uncovers low dollar stocks with serious upside potential that are flying under Wall Street's radar.

Product Features:
  • Model portfolio
  • Stocks trading below $10
  • Intraday trade alerts
14-Days Free
Only $9.95
14-Days Free
Dividend Stock Advisor

David Peltier identifies the best of breed dividend stocks that will pay a reliable AND significant income stream.

Product Features:
  • Diversified model portfolio of dividend stocks
  • Updates with exact steps to take - BUY, HOLD, SELL
Trifecta Stocks

Every recommendation goes through 3 layers of intense scrutiny—quantitative, fundamental and technical analysis—to maximize profit potential and minimize risk.

Product Features:
  • Model Portfolio
  • Intra Day Trade alerts
  • Access to Quant Ratings
Real Money

More than 30 investing pros with skin in the game give you actionable insight and investment ideas.

Product Features:
  • Access to Jim Cramer's daily blog
  • Intraday commentary and news
  • Real-time trading forums
Only $49.95
14-Days Free
14-Days Free
AAPL $93.99 0.00%
FB $102.01 0.00%
GOOG $682.40 0.00%
TSLA $151.04 0.00%
YHOO $27.04 0.00%


Chart of I:DJI
DOW 15,973.84 +313.66 2.00%
S&P 500 1,864.78 +35.70 1.95%
NASDAQ 4,337.5120 +70.6750 1.66%

Free Reports

Top Rated Stocks Top Rated Funds Top Rated ETFs