(b) for substantially all carry funds and certain co-investment vehicles where the investment period has expired, the remaining amount of limited partner invested capital and for management fee funds where the first investment has been realized, the amount of partner commitments less realized and written-off investments;
(c) the amount of aggregate fee-earning collateral balance at par of our collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs“), as defined in the fund indentures (typically exclusive of equities and defaulted positions) as of the quarterly cut-off date for each CLO, and the reference portfolio notional amount of our synthetic collateralized loan obligations (“synthetic CLOs“);
(d) the external investor portion of the net asset value (pre-redemptions and subscriptions) of our long/short credit, emerging markets, multi-product macroeconomic and other hedge funds and certain structured credit funds; and
(e) for fund of funds vehicles where the commitment fee period has expired and certain carry funds where the investment period has expired, the lower of cost or fair value of invested capital.Fee-earning AUM includes certain energy and renewable resources funds that Carlyle jointly advises with Riverstone and certain management fee funds advised by NGP Energy Capital Management. For Carlyle’s carry funds, co-investment vehicles, management fee funds and fund of funds vehicles, total AUM includes the fair value of the capital invested, whereas fee-earning AUM includes the amount of capital commitments or the remaining amount of invested capital at cost, depending on whether the investment period for the fund has expired. As such, fee-earning AUM may be greater than total AUM when the aggregate fair value of the remaining investments is less than the cost of those investments. “ Fund of funds vehicles” refer to those funds, accounts and vehicles advised by AlpInvest Partners B.V., formerly known as AlpInvest Partners N.V. “ Management fee funds” refers to those funds advised by NGP Energy Capital Management. In December 2012, Carlyle acquired an equity interest in NGP Energy Capital Management that entitles Carlyle to an allocation of income equal to 47.5% of the management fee-related revenues of the NGP Energy Capital Management entities that serve as the advisors to certain private equity funds. “ Net performance fees” refers to the performance fees from Carlyle funds and fund of funds vehicles net of the portion allocated to Carlyle investment professionals which is reflected as performance fee related compensation expense. “ Performance fees” consist principally of carried interest from carry funds and fund of funds vehicles and incentive fees or allocations from certain of our Global Market Strategies funds. Carlyle is generally entitled to a 20% allocation (or 1.8% to 10% in the case of most of the fund of funds vehicles) of the net realized income or gain as a carried interest after returning the invested capital, the allocation of preferred returns of generally 8% to 9% and the return of certain fund costs (subject to catch-up provisions as set forth in the fund limited partnership agreement). Carried interest revenue, which is a component of performance fees in Carlyle’s consolidated financial statements, is recognized by Carlyle upon appreciation of the valuation of the applicable funds’ investments above certain return hurdles as set forth in each respective partnership agreement and is based on the amount that would be due to Carlyle pursuant to the fund partnership agreement at each period end as if the funds were liquidated at such date. “ Realized net performance fees” refers to the realized performance fees from Carlyle funds and fund of funds vehicles net of the portion allocated to Carlyle investment professionals which is reflected as realized performance fee related compensation expense.