Adjusted Funds From Operations – The Company also uses AFFO as an operating measure. AFFO is defined as FFO less operating capital expenditures and after adjusting for the impact of non-cash straight-line, long-term ground lease expense, non-cash impairment charges, debt extinguishment gains (losses) and preferred stock redemption costs. The Company believes that AFFO is an important supplemental measure of operating performance for an equity REIT because it provides investors with an indication of the REIT’s ability to fund its operating capital expenditures through earnings. In addition, since most equity REITs provide AFFO information to the investment community, the Company believes that AFFO is a useful supplemental measure for comparing the Company to other equity REITs. The Company believes that the line on its consolidated statement of operations entitled “net income available to common shareholders” is the most directly comparable GAAP measure to AFFO.
Property Net Operating Income (“NOI”)
– The Company uses property NOI, including same store NOI and same store NOI by market, as an operating measure. NOI is defined as rental and other revenues from real estate operations less total property and maintenance expenses from real estate operations (exclusive of depreciation and amortization). The Company believes that NOI is an important supplemental measure of operating performance for a REIT’s operating real estate because it provides a measure of the core operations, rather than factoring in depreciation and amortization, financing costs and general and administrative expenses generally incurred at the corporate level. This measure is particularly useful, in the opinion of the Company, in evaluating the performance of geographic operations, same store groupings and individual properties. Additionally, the Company believes that NOI, as defined, is a widely accepted measure of comparative operating performance in the real estate investment community. The Company believes that the line on its consolidated statement of operations entitled “net income” is the most directly comparable GAAP measure to NOI.
Same Store Capital Expenditures
– The Company uses same store annually recurring and periodically recurring capital expenditures as cash flow measures. Same store annually recurring and periodically recurring capital expenditures are supplemental non-GAAP financial measures. The Company believes that same store annually recurring and periodically recurring capital expenditures are important indicators of the costs incurred by the Company in maintaining its same store communities on an ongoing basis. The corresponding GAAP measures include information with respect to the Company’s other operating segments consisting of communities stabilized in the prior year, lease-up communities, rehabilitation properties, sold properties and commercial properties in addition to same store information. Therefore, the Company believes that the Company’s presentation of same store annually recurring and periodically recurring capital expenditures is necessary to demonstrate same store replacement costs over time. The Company believes that the most directly comparable GAAP measure to same store annually recurring and periodically recurring capital expenditures is the line on the Company’s consolidated statements of cash flows entitled “property capital expenditures,” which also includes revenue generating capital expenditures.
Debt Statistics and Debt Ratios
– The Company uses a number of debt statistics and ratios as supplemental measures of liquidity. The numerator and/or the denominator of certain of these statistics and/or ratios include non-GAAP financial measures that have been reconciled to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure. These debt statistics and ratios include: (1) interest coverage ratios; (2) fixed charge coverage ratios; (3) total debt as a percentage of undepreciated real estate assets (adjusted for joint venture partner’s share of debt); (4) total debt plus preferred equity as a percentage of undepreciated real estate assets (adjusted for joint venture partner’s share of debt); (5) a ratio of consolidated debt to total assets; (6) a ratio of secured debt to total assets; (7) a ratio of total unencumbered assets to unsecured debt; (8) a ratio of consolidated income available for debt service to annual debt service charge; and (9) a debt to annualized income available for debt service ratio. A number of these debt statistics and ratios are derived from covenants found in the Company’s debt agreements, including, among others, the Company’s senior unsecured notes. In addition, the Company presents these measures because the degree of leverage could affect the Company’s ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, development or other general corporate purposes. The Company uses these measures internally as an indicator of liquidity, and the Company believes that these measures are also utilized by the investment and analyst communities to better understand the Company’s liquidity.
The Company uses income available for debt service to calculate certain debt ratios and statistics. Income available for debt service is defined as net income (loss) before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, gains on sales of real estate assets, non-cash impairment charges and other non-cash income and expenses. Income available for debt service is a supplemental measure of operating performance that does not represent and should not be considered as an alternative to net income or cash flow from operating activities as determined under GAAP, and the Company’s calculation thereof may not be comparable to similar measures reported by other companies, including EBITDA or Adjusted EBITDA.