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Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome And Cardiovascular Disease

Appendix 1: The History of Insulin 215

INDEX OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Worldwide Rates of Diabetes Cases, 2012, 2020 and 2030 16

Figure 2.2: Worldwide Prevalence of Diabetes (%) in Adults (20-79 Years), 2011 18

Figure 2.3: Prevalence of Diabetes by Age in the U.S, 2010 19

Figure 2.4: New Adult Cases of Diabetes Diagnosed in the U.S., 2010 20

Figure 2.5: Mean Diabetes Healthcare-related Expenditures Per Adult (20-79 Years) with Diabetes, 2011 21

Figure 2.6: How Diabetes Dollars are Spent in the U.S., 2007 23

Figure 3.1: Maintenance of Normal Blood Sugar Levels 26

Figure 3.2: Obesity (BMI ³ 30) Prevalence in U.S. Adults, 2010 35

Figure 3.3: Percentage of Obese Adults in the U.S., 2009-2010 35

Figure 3.4: Percentage of Obese Children and Adolescents in the U.S., 2009-2010 36

Figure 3.5: Trends in Obesity Among Children and Adolescents in the U.S., 1963-2008 36

Figure 3.6: Annual Death Rate of U.S. Population from Heart Disease, 1950-2008 43

Figure 3.7: Heart Disease Death Rate by Race and Sex in the U.S., 1979-2008 44

Figure 3.8: Annual Death Rate of U.S. Population from Strokes, 1950-2008 44

Figure 3.9: U.S. Male and Female Population Death Rates from Strokes, 2008 45

Figure 3.10: Percentage of U.S. Population That Smokes, 1965-2010 46

Figure 3.11: Percentage of Obese Adults in the U.S., 1960-2008 47

Figure 3.12: Percentage of Obese Children and Adolescents in the U.S., 1971-2008 48

Figure 3.13: Number of Annual Prescriptions for Popular Cholesterol Drugs, 2006-2010 51

Figure 4.1: Top Therapeutic Classes Contributing to Growth in U.S. Drug Spending, 2010-2011 68

Figure 4.2: Top Ten Diabetes Medications in the U.S., by Number of Prescriptions 69

Figure 4.3: U.S. Non-Insulin Anti-Diabetic Drug Prescriptions, 2010 69

Figure 5.1: Comparison of the Effects of the Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone on Lipids 81

Figure 5.2: Overview of GLP-1 and Blood Glucose 84

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