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Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome And Cardiovascular Disease


1. Overview 8

1.1 Statement of Report 8

1.2 About this Report 8

1.3 Scope of the Report 9

1.4 Methodology 9

1.5 Executive Summary 10

2. Introduction 152.1 Demographics of Diabetes 162.1.1 Worldwide Diabetes 162.1.2 U.S. Diabetes 182.2 Economics of Diabetes 21

3. Understanding the Metabolic Conditions Underlying and Associated with Diabetes 26

3.1 Pre-Diabetes Syndrome 27

3.2 Metabolic Syndrome 27

3.3 Diabetes and Inflammation 32

3.4 Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus 33

3.5 Progression of Diabetes 33

3.6 Risk Factors and Diabetes 33

3.6.1 Obesity 34

3.6.2 Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia 37

3.7 Complications and Co-Morbidities in Type 2 Diabetes 37

3.7.1 Preventing Complications and Co-Morbidities in Diabetes 40

3.8 Hypoglycemia Resulting from Treatment 41

3.9 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) 41

3.9.1 CVD Facts 41

3.9.2 Cardiac Care Therapeutics 48 Anti-Hypertensive Drugs 49 Cholesterol Management Drugs 50 Anticoagulants 53

3.9.3 CVD Diagnostics 53

4. Pharmaceutical Industry and the Anti-Diabetes Market 564.1 The Worldwide Pharmaceutical Industry 564.1.1 Pharmaceutical R&D Spending by Type, Growth Rate and Expenditure 564.1.2 Global Pharmaceutical Market 584.2 Total Diabetes Drug Market Size and Growth 624.2.1 Sales of Anti-Diabetic Drugs Continue to Rise 654.3 Diabetic Medications Overview 664.3.1 Recent Trends in Diabetic Drug Usage 674.3.2 Market Influence Factors 71

5. Non-Insulin Anti-Diabetes Products 73

5.1 Anti-Diabetic Drug Therapy Overview 73

5.1.1 Sulfonylureas 77

5.1.2 Meglitinides 78

5.1.3 Biguanides 79

5.1.4 Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) 80

5.1.5 a-Glucosidase Inhibitors 82

5.1.6 Incretin Mimetics/Glucagon-like Peptide (GLP-1) Analogs and Agonists 83 Byetta (Exenatide) 84 Victoza (Liraglutide) 85 Bydureon (Exenatide LAR) 85

5.1.7 Amylin Analog 85

5.1.8 DPP-IV Inhibitors 86 Januvia (Sitagliptin) 86 Onglyza (Saxagliptin) 86 Tradjenta (Linagliptin) 86 Galvus (Vildagliptin) 87

5.1.9 Combination Therapy 87 Youth with Recent-Onset Type 2 Diabetes should be Started on Combination

Therapies 88

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