Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic reevaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to reduce abuse of opioid drugs.
Risks Specific to Abuse of Oxymorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are for oral use only. Abuse of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets poses a risk of overdose and death. This risk is increased with concurrent abuse of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with alcohol and other substances. Taking cut, broken, chewed, crushed, or dissolved oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets enhances drug release and increases the risk of over dose and death.
Parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV.
DependenceBoth tolerance and physical dependence can develop during chronic opioid therapy. Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs, and may develop at different rates for different effects.Physical dependence results in withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dose reduction of a drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity, e.g., naloxone, nalmefene, or mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (pentazocine, butorphanol, buprenorphine, nalbuphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued opioid usage Oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be abruptly discontinued . If oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are abruptly discontinued in a physically-dependent patient, an abstinence syndrome may occur. Some or all of the following can characterize this syndrome: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including: irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate. Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal symptoms.