Nursing MothersIt is not known whether oxymorphone is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs, including some opioids, are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are administered to a nursing woman. Monitor infants who may be exposed to oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breast-fed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped.
Pediatric UseThe safety and effectiveness of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients below the age of 18 years have not been established.
Geriatric UseOf the total number of subjects in clinical studies of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, 27% were 65 and over, while 9% were 75 and over. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. There were several adverse events that were more frequently observed in subjects 65 and over compared to younger subjects. These adverse events included dizziness, somnolence, confusion, and nausea. On average, age greater than 65 years was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in oxymorphone AUC and a 1.5-fold increase in C max. Initiate dosing with oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients 65 years of age and over using the 5 mg dose and monitor closely for signs of respiratory and central nervous system depression when initiating and titrating oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. For patients on prior opioid therapy, start at 50% of the starting dose for a younger patient on prior opioids and titrate slowly.
Hepatic ImpairmentPatients with mild hepatic impairment have an increase in oxymorphone bioavailability of 1.6-fold. In opioid-naïve patients with mild hepatic impairment, initiate oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets using the 5 mg dose and monitor closely for respiratory and central nervous system depression. Oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated for patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment. For patients on prior opioid therapy, start at the 50% of the dose for that a patient with normal hepatic function on prior opioids and titrate slowly.Renal ImpairmentPatients with moderate to severe renal impairment were shown to have an increase in oxymorphone bioavailability ranging from 57-65%. Start opioid-naïve patients with the 5 mg dose of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and titrate slowly while closely monitoring for respiratory and central nervous system depression. For patients on prior opioid therapy, start at 50% of the dose for a patient with normal renal function on prior opioids and titrate slowly. Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal SyndromeChronic maternal use of oxymorphone during pregnancy can affect the fetus with subsequent withdrawal signs. Neonatal withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration and severity of neonatal withdrawal syndrome vary based on the drug used, duration of use, the dose of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, unlike opioid withdrawal syndrome in adults, may be life-threatening and should be treated according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE Controlled SubstanceOxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets contains oxymorphone, a mu opioid agonist and a Schedule II controlled substance with an abuse liability similar to other opioids including fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone and tapentadol. Oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can be abused and is subject to criminal diversion. The high drug content in extended release formulations adds to the risk of adverse outcomes from abuse and misuse.