Manufacturing and commissary gross margin as a percentage of manufacturing and commissary revenues increased from 8.7% to 23.6% driven by benefits from various cost initiatives, but particularly, the closure of all five commissaries by the end of the first quarter of 2012.
Overall, gross profit was $20.7 million in the third quarter of 2012 compared to $18.9 million in the third quarter of 2011, and as a percentage of total revenues, increased 150 basis points to 19.7% from 18.2% in the year-ago period.
General and administrative expenses increased to $9.1 million in the third quarter of 2012 from $8.6 million in the third quarter of 2011, primarily due to higher variable incentive compensation plans.
Adjusted EBITDA rose 13.6% to $11.7 million in the third quarter of 2012 compared to $10.3 million in the third quarter of 2011. (*)Income from operations increased by $1.1 million to $6.3 million in the third quarter of 2012. Net income was $3.4 million (+20.4% vs. prior year), or $0.20 per diluted share, compared to a net income of $2.8 million, or $0.17 per diluted share, in the year-ago period. In the third quarter of 2012, the Company incurred $0.3 million, or $0.01 per diluted share, in pre-tax expenses related to the strategic alternative review process. In the third quarter of 2011, the Company incurred $0.1 million in pre-tax restructuring expenses in relation to the closure of one of its commissaries. * A reconciliation of the non-GAAP measure to the nearest GAAP measure can be found in the accompanying tables below. Restaurant Development As of October 2, 2012, there were 797 Einstein Bros.® Bagels, Noah's New York Bagels®, and Manhattan Bagel® branded restaurants in operation. During the third quarter of 2012, the Company opened 20 restaurants and ended the quarter with 450 Company-owned and operated restaurants, while franchisees and licensees ended the period with 94 and 253 restaurants, respectively.
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