Net income increased to EUR 374 million as higher underlying earnings and realized gains on investments, more favorable results on fair value items and lower impairments were only partly offset by higher tax charges.
Fair value items
The results from fair value items amounted to a loss of EUR 126 million. The most important contributors to the loss were the negative results from the equity hedge programs in the United States and the United Kingdom, negative revaluation of direct real estate investments in the Netherlands and the impact of lower credit spreads on the valuation of Aegon bonds.
Realized gains on investmentsIn the third quarter, realized gains on investments amounted to EUR 128 million and were mainly the result of normal trading activity in the investment portfolio. Impairment charges Net impairments improved significantly and amounted to EUR 35 million. Gross impairments remained relatively stable compared to previous quarters and were primarily linked to residential mortgage-backed securities in the United States, partly offset by strong recoveries. Other income Other income amounted to EUR 3 million, mainly the result of UK policyholder tax with an equal and opposite charge in the tax income line offset by restructuring charges of EUR 3 million in the Netherlands and a one-time provision of EUR 5 million in Poland. Run-off businesses The results of run-off businesses amounted to EUR 12 million and were driven by improved results on the institutional spread-based business and BOLI/COLI, only partly offset by lower results from payout annuities. Income tax Income tax amounted to EUR 80 million in the third quarter, translating into an effective tax rate of 18%. The main drivers of the lower than nominal tax rate were tax exempt income in the Americas and the Netherlands, tax credits and the benefit of a tax rate decrease in the United Kingdom. Return on equity