In addition to the reasons stated above, which are generally applicable to each of the items Glu excludes from its non-GAAP financial measures, Glu believes it is appropriate to exclude certain items for the following reasons:
Change in Deferred Revenue and Royalties
. At the date we sell certain premium games and micro-transactions, Glu has an obligation to provide additional services and incremental unspecified digital content in the future without an additional fee. In these cases, we recognize the revenue and any associated royalty expense on a straight-line basis over the estimated life of the user. Internally, Glu’s management excludes the impact of the changes in deferred revenue and royalties related to its premium and freemium games in its non-GAAP financial measures when evaluating the company’s operating performance, when planning, forecasting and analyzing future periods, and when assessing the performance of its management team. Glu believes that excluding the impact of the changes in deferred revenue and royalties from its operating results is important to facilitate comparisons to prior periods during which Glu did not delay the recognition of significant amounts of revenue related to its games and to understand Glu’s operations.
Amortization of In-Process Development Contracts.
In conjunction with the Griptonite acquisition, Glu assumed the remaining obligations to perform services under Griptonite’s development contracts. The estimated fair value of the future, excess profits from these contracts was recorded in purchase accounting and is amortized as a reduction to revenue as services are performed. When analyzing the operating performance of an acquired entity, Glu’s management focuses on the total return provided by the investment without taking into consideration any fair value adjustments made for accounting purposes. Because the final purchase price paid for an acquisition necessarily reflects the accounting value assigned to both the consideration paid and to the intangible assets (including goodwill) acquired, when analyzing the operating performance of an acquisition in subsequent periods, the Company’s management excludes the GAAP impact of any adjustments to the fair value of these acquisition-related balances to its financial results. Glu believes that excluding the impact of the amortization of the customer contract value from its operating results is important as they do not reflect its ongoing operations and that investors benefit from a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that excludes these charges.
Amortization of Intangible Assets.
When analyzing the operating performance of an acquired entity, Glu's management focuses on the total return provided by the investment (i.e., operating profit generated from the acquired entity as compared to the purchase price paid) without taking into consideration any allocations made for accounting purposes. Because the purchase price for an acquisition necessarily reflects the accounting value assigned to intangible assets (including acquired in-process technology and goodwill), when analyzing the operating performance of an acquisition in subsequent periods, Glu's management excludes the GAAP impact of acquired intangible assets to its financial results. Glu believes that such an approach is useful in understanding the long-term return provided by an acquisition and that investors benefit from a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that excludes the accounting expense associated with acquired intangible assets.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense.
Glu adopted ASC 718, "Compensation – Stock Compensation" beginning in its fiscal year ended December 31, 2006. Included in the stock compensation expense is the contingent consideration potentially issuable to the Blammo employees who were former shareholders of Blammo, which is recorded as research and development expense over the term of the earn-out periods, since these employees are primarily employed in product development. Glu re-measures the fair value of the contingent consideration each reporting period and only records a compensation expense for the portion of the earn-out target which is likely to be achieved. In addition, Glu is exposed to potential continued fluctuations in the fair market value of the contingent consideration in each reporting period, since re-measurement is impacted by changes in Glu’s share price and the assumptions used by Glu. When evaluating the performance of its consolidated results, Glu does not consider stock-based compensation charges. Likewise, Glu's management team excludes stock-based compensation expense from its short and long-term operating plans. In contrast, Glu's management team is held accountable for cash-based compensation and such amounts are included in its operating plans. Further, when considering the impact of equity award grants, Glu places a greater emphasis on overall stockholder dilution rather than the accounting charges associated with such grants.
Glu believes it is useful to provide a non-GAAP financial measure that excludes stock-based compensation in order to better understand the long-term performance of its business. In addition, given Glu's adoption of ASC 718 beginning with its fiscal year ended December 31, 2006, Glu believes that a non-GAAP financial measure that excludes stock-based compensation will facilitate the comparison of its year-over-year results.