(b) Amortization of acquired intangible assets: Amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets primarily relate to core and existing technologies, patents, trade name and customer relationships that were acquired with the acquisitions of Continuous Computing, Convedia, MCPD and Pactolus. The Company excludes the amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets because it does not reflect the Company's ongoing business and it does not have a direct correlation to the operation of the Company's business. In addition, in accordance with GAAP, the Company generally recognizes expenses for internally-developed intangible assets as they are incurred, notwithstanding the potential future benefit such assets may provide. Unlike internally-developed intangible assets, however, and also in accordance with GAAP, the Company generally capitalizes the cost of acquired intangible assets and recognizes that cost as an expense over the useful lives of the assets acquired. As a result of their GAAP treatment, there is an inherent lack of comparability between the financial performance of internally-developed intangible assets and acquired intangible assets. Accordingly, the Company believes it is useful to provide, as a supplement to its GAAP operating results, non-GAAP financial measures that exclude the amortization of acquired intangibles in order to enhance the period-over-period comparison of its operating results, as there is significant variability and unpredictability across companies with respect to this expense.
(c) Stock-based compensation: Stock-based compensation consists of expenses recorded under GAAP, in connection with stock awards such as stock options, restricted stock awards and restricted stock units granted under the Company's equity incentive plans and shares issued pursuant to the Company's employee stock purchase plan. The Company excludes stock-based compensation from non-GAAP financial measures because it is a non-cash measurement that does not reflect the Company's ongoing business and because the Company believes that investors want to understand the impact on the Company of the adoption of the applicable GAAP surrounding share based payments; the Company believes that the provision of non-GAAP information that excludes stock-based compensation improves the ability of investors to compare its period-over-period operating results, as there is significant variability and unpredictability across companies with respect to this expense.
(d) Restructuring and acquisition-related charges, net: Restructuring and acquisition-related charges, net: Restructuring primarily relates to activities engaged in by the Company's management to simplify and focus its infrastructure. Restructuring and other charges are excluded from non-GAAP financial measures because they are not considered core operating activities. Although the Company has engaged in various restructuring activities over the past several years, each has been a discrete event based on a unique set of business objectives. The Company does not engage in restructuring activities in the ordinary course of business. As such, the Company believes it is appropriate to exclude restructuring charges from its non-GAAP financial measures because it enhances the ability of investors to compare the Company's period-over-period operating results.
In addition to restructuring activities, we exclude certain other acquisition-related items including the following, when applicable: (i) integration related charges; and (ii) acquisition-related charges. Acquisitions result in non-recurring operating expenses, which would not otherwise have been incurred by us in the normal course of our business operations. Integration charges include, among other things, expenses associated with operational consolidation, training, rebranding and consulting. Acquisition-related charges include transaction fees and legal and professional service expenses incurred in connection with our acquisitions. We believe that providing non-GAAP information for acquisition-related expense items in addition to the corresponding GAAP information allows the users of our financial statements to better review and understand the historic and current results of our continuing operations, and also facilitates comparisons to less acquisitive peer companies.
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