Principles of consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of ASML Holding N.V. and all of its subsidiaries and the variable interest entities in which ASML is the primary beneficiary (together referred to as “ASML” or the “Company”). Subsidiaries are all entities over which ASML has the power to govern the financial and operating policies generally accompanying a shareholding of more than one half of the voting rights. All intercompany profits, balances and transactions have been eliminated in the consolidation.
Use of estimates
The preparation of ASML’s consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities on the balance sheet dates, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reported periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Recognition of revenues
In general, ASML recognizes revenue when all four revenue recognition criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; seller’s price to buyer is fixed or determinable; and collectability is reasonably assured. At ASML, this policy generally results in revenue recognition from the sale of a system upon shipment. The revenue from the installation of a system is generally recognized upon completion of that installation at the customer site. Each system undergoes, prior to shipment, a "Factory Acceptance Test" in ASML’s cleanroom facilities, effectively replicating the operating conditions that will be present on the customer's site, in order to verify whether the system will meet its standard specifications and any additional technical and performance criteria agreed with the customer, if any. A system is shipped, and revenue is recognized, only after all specifications are met and customer sign-off is received or waived. In case not all specifications are met and the remaining performance obligation is not essential to the functionality of the system but is substantive rather than inconsequential or perfunctory, a portion of the sales price is deferred. Although each system's performance is re-tested upon installation at the customer's site, ASML has never failed to successfully complete installation of a system at a customer’s premises.