So that's from the source of all these compounds in development. As you can see, we have quite an extensive and growing pipeline. Again, I'll spend most of the time on our diabetes programs and then I'll only describe briefly, have time for our serotonin programs and carcinoid syndrome and IBS at the end.
So let's turn to diabetes then. 4211, this is a very unique compound. It's the first-in-class agent in that it blocks both SGLT1 and 2. These are the two key transporters in the body that handle glucose. So it affects the glucose load in the body. And SGLT1 target is the primary transporter in the GI tract and this is I think brings us 4211 the unique attributes that I'll describe.
SGLT2 is a better known target. It's under development at a number of companies. It's the main transporter in the kidney and it controls the rate of glucose, the reabsorption from the urine back into the blood. But together we have found these transporters work in a coordinated fashion really to regulate the glucose -- overall glucose load in the body. And by blocking them, we can reduce that load.
In the GI tract, you reduce the amount of glucose that comes into the body and also trigger other beneficial mechanisms including Glip 1 and then with SGLT2, you can actually offload more glucose into the urine.Now the industry has really, as I said, mostly focused on SGLT2 as you can see by this column to the right, a number of large companies with their partners. And the reason they avoided SGLT1 in the beginning is there was a theoretical concern that blocking that target might cause GI side effects. Indeed, there are humans lacking SGLT1 and a complete lack of the target does lead to a glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome. And so that put off researchers from that target.
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