Our wholesale gross margin for the three months ended June 30, 2012 was 2.5%, which is slightly lower than the profit margin of a traditional wholesale drug distributor. Because we introduced competitive prices to stimulate sales, our traditional wholesale business, where we purchase from third-party manufacturers or suppliers and resell, had a low profit margin. Although the margins for our group sales are usually higher than our traditional wholesale business, they vary depending on specific products we carried and sold.
Our profit margin from our farming business was approximately 90.9% for the three months ended June 30, 2012. As we monitored our cultivated herbs through our specialists, we were able to maintain good quality that, in turn, enabled us markup our herbs to market prices. The cultivation costs for TCM’s are traditionally low therefore increasing the gross margin.
Selling and Marketing Expenses. Our sales and marketing expenses increased by $479,925 or 34.8% period over period due to increased rent, labor, and depreciation & amortization expense. Such expenses as a percentage of our revenue decreased to 5.7%, from 6.4% for the same period a year ago as wholesale business contributed significant sales revenue. We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will increase as we continue to expand our infrastructure, online pharmacy and wholesale business.
General and Administrative Expenses. Our general and administrative expenses increased by $1,771,795 or 164.9% period over period. Such expenses as a percentage of our revenue increased to 8.7% from 5.0% for the same period a year ago. The increase in absolute dollars as well as a percentage of revenue related to professional fees incurred as a U.S. publicly traded company, more reserves for accounts receivables and advances to suppliers, increased salaries, and administration costs related to our new businesses such as Jiuxin Medicine. For example, due to the expansion of our wholesale business, we had significant amount of accounts receivable and advance to suppliers as of June 30, 2012. As a result, we recorded an additional $1.1 million of bad debt expense, that is included in general and administration expenses. As we continue to open drugstores, further develop our infrastructure, and incur expenses related to being a U.S. public company, we anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase in absolute dollars.Income from Operations. As a result of lower profit margins, increases in selling and marketing expenses, and increases in general and administration expenses, our income from operations decreased by $3,976,266 or 90.0% period over period. Our operating margin for the three months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011 was 1.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Income Taxes. Our income tax expense decreased by $1,251,681 period over period, as a result of lower taxable income and an income tax waiver granted to Qianhong Agriculture, our entity that cultivates TCM. Net Income. As a result of the foregoing, our net income decreased by $2,707,842 period over period. Conference Call Information The Company will host a conference call to discuss its first quarter fiscal year 2013 results on Thursday, August 16, 2012, at 8 a.m. Eastern Time. To participate in the conference call, please dial 1-877-941-4774 from North America. International participants can access the call by dialing 1-480-629-9760. A live audio webcast of this conference call will be available under the Investors Relations section of the Company's website at http://www.chinajojodrugstores.com. A replay of the call will be available beginning the same day at approximately 11a.m. Eastern Time by dialing 1-877-870-5176 or -1-858-384-5517 with pin #4560312. The replay will also be available on the company website. Balance Sheet Highlights