Distributable earnings–OCG, a non-GAAP measure, is calculated to provide Class A unitholders with a measure that shows the portion of distributable earnings attributable to their ownership. Distributable earnings-OCG represents distributable earnings including the effect of (a) the OCGH non-controlling interest, (b) expenses, such as current income tax expense, that OCG or its Intermediate Holding Companies bear directly and (c) amounts payable under a tax receivable agreement. The income tax expense included in distributable earnings-OCG represents the implied current provision for income taxes calculated using an approach similar to that which is used in calculating the income tax provision for adjusted net income-OCG.
Economic net income
(“ENI”) is a non-GAAP measure that we use to evaluate the financial performance of our segment by applying the “method 2”, instead of the “method 1”, approach to accounting for incentive income. ANI follows method 1, for which incentive income is recognized by us when it becomes fixed or determinable, all related contingencies have been removed and collection is reasonably assured. The method 2 approach followed by ENI recognizes incentive income as if the funds were liquidated at their reported values as of the date of the financial statements. ENI is computed by adjusting ANI for the change in accrued incentives (fund level), net of associated incentive income compensation expense, during the period.
Economic net income–OCG
, a non-GAAP measure, is calculated to provide Class A unitholders with a measure that shows the portion of ENI attributable to their ownership. Economic net income-OCG represents ENI, including the effect of (a) the OCGH non-controlling interest, (b) expenses, such as income tax expense, that OCG or its Intermediate Holding Companies bear directly and (c) any Operating Group income taxes attributable to OCG. The income tax expense included in economic net income-OCG represents the implied provision for income taxes calculated using an approach similar to that which is used in calculating the income tax provision for adjusted net income-OCG.
(“FRE”) is a non-GAAP profit measure that we use to monitor the baseline earnings of our business. FRE is comprised of segment management fees less segment operating expenses other than incentive income compensation expense. This calculation is considered baseline because it applies all bonus and other general expenses to management fees, even though a significant portion of those expenses is attributable to incentive and investment income. FRE is presented before income taxes. We expect that FRE will include non-cash equity compensation charges related to unit grants made after our initial public offering.
is a non-GAAP measure calculated to provide Class A unitholders with a measure that shows the portion of FRE attributable to their ownership. Fee-related earnings-OCG represents FRE, including the effect of (a) the OCGH non-controlling interest, (b) expenses, such as income tax expense, that OCG or its Intermediate Holding Companies bear directly and (c) any Operating Group income taxes attributable to OCG. Fee-related earnings – OCG income taxes is calculated excluding any segment incentive income or investment income (loss).
Incentive-creating assets under management (“incentive-creating AUM”)
represents the AUM that may eventually produce incentive income. It equals the NAV of our closed-end and evergreen funds, excluding investments made by us and our employees (which are not subject to an incentive allocation). All funds for which we are entitled to receive an incentive allocation are included in incentive-creating AUM, regardless of whether or not they are currently generating incentives. Incentive-creating AUM does not include undrawn capital commitments because they are not part of the NAV.
Intermediate Holding Companies
collectively refers to the subsidiaries wholly owned by us.
Management fee-generating assets under management (“management fee-generating AUM”)
reflects the AUM on which we earn management fees. Our closed-end funds typically pay management fees based on committed capital during the investment period, without regard to changes in NAV or the pace of capital drawdowns, and during the liquidation period on the lesser of (a) total funded capital and (b) the cost basis of assets remaining in the fund. The annual management fee rate remains unchanged from the investment period through the liquidation period. Our open-end and evergreen funds pay management fees based on their NAV.
As compared with AUM, management fee-generating AUM generally excludes the following:
Net asset value
- Differences between AUM and either committed capital or cost basis for closed-end funds, other than for closed-end funds that pay management fees based on NAV and leverage, as applicable;
- Undrawn capital commitments to funds for which management fees are based on NAV or drawn capital;
- Capital commitments to closed-end funds that have not yet commenced their investment periods;
- The investments we make as general partner;
- Closed-end funds that are beyond the term during which they pay management fees; and
- AUM in three restructured and liquidating evergreen funds for which management fees were waived commencing in 2009.
refers to the value of all the assets of a fund (including cash and accrued interest and dividends) less all liabilities of the fund (including accrued expenses and any reserves established by us, in our discretion, for contingent liabilities), without reduction for accrued incentives (fund level) because they are reflected in the partners’ capital of the fund.
Oaktree Operating Group
(“Operating Group”) refers collectively to the entities that control the general partners and investment advisors of our funds in which we have a minority economic interest and indirect control.
refers, with respect to:
- our U.S. high yield bond strategy, to the Citigroup U.S. High Yield Cash-Pay Capped Index;
- our European high yield bond strategy, to the BofA Merrill Lynch Global Non-Financial High Yield European Issuers excluding Russia 3% Constrained Index (USD Hedged);
- our U.S. senior loan strategy (with the exception of the closed-end funds), to the Credit Suisse Leveraged Loan Index;
- our European senior loan strategy, to the Credit Suisse Western European Leveraged Loan Index (EUR Hedged);
- our U.S. convertible securities strategy, to an Oaktree custom convertible index that represents the Credit Suisse Convertible Securities Index from inception through December 31, 1999, the Goldman Sachs/Bloomberg Convertible 100 Index from January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2004 and the BofA Merrill Lynch All U.S. Convertibles Index thereafter;
- our non-U.S. convertible securities strategy, to the JACI Global ex-U.S. (Local) Index; and
- our high income convertible securities strategy, to the Citigroup U.S. High Yield Market Index.
refers to a metric used to calculate risk-adjusted return. The Sharpe Ratio is the ratio of excess return to volatility, with excess return defined as the return above that of a riskless asset (based on the three-month U.S. Treasury bill, or for our European senior loan strategy, the Euro Overnight Index Average) divided by the standard deviation of such return. A higher Sharpe Ratio indicates a return that is higher than would be expected for the level of risk compared to the risk-free rate.
Use of Non-GAAP financial information
Oaktree discloses certain financial measures that are calculated and presented on the basis of methodologies other than in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“non-GAAP”) in this earnings release. Reconciliations of these non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP are presented below. Management makes operating decisions and assesses the performance of Oaktree’s business based on these non-GAAP financial measures. These non-GAAP financial measures should be considered in addition to and not as a substitute for, or superior to, financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP.