Stock-Based Compensation Expense. Glu adopted ASC 718, "Compensation – Stock Compensation" beginning in its fiscal year ended December 31, 2006. When evaluating the performance of its consolidated results, Glu does not consider stock-based compensation charges. Likewise, Glu's management team excludes stock-based compensation expense from its short and long-term operating plans. In contrast, Glu's management team is held accountable for cash-based compensation and such amounts are included in its operating plans. Further, when considering the impact of equity award grants, Glu places a greater emphasis on overall stockholder dilution rather than the accounting charges associated with such grants.
Glu believes it is useful to provide a non-GAAP financial measure that excludes stock-based compensation in order to better understand the long-term performance of its business. In addition, given Glu's adoption of ASC 718 beginning with its fiscal year ended December 31, 2006, Glu believes that a non-GAAP financial measure that excludes stock-based compensation will facilitate the comparison of its year-over-year results.
Restructuring Charges. Glu undertook restructuring activities in the first, second and fourth quarters of 2011 and the second quarter of 2012 and recorded (1) a non-cash restructuring charge due to vacating a portion of its offices in Russia (2) cash restructuring charges due to the termination of certain employees in its Brazil, China, Europe, Russia and U.S. offices and (3) non-cash adjustments related to initial, estimated restructuring payments no longer deemed payable. Glu recorded the severance costs as an operating expense when it communicated the benefit arrangement to the employee and no significant future services, other than a minimum retention period, were required of the employee to earn the termination benefits. Glu believes that these restructuring charges do not reflect its ongoing operations and that investors benefit from a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that excludes these charges.
Change in Fair Value of Blammo Earnout. As part of the acquisition of Blammo, Glu committed to issue additional consideration in the form of Glu’s common stock to the former, non-employee Blammo shareholders if certain revenue targets are achieved. Glu recorded the estimated contingent consideration liability at acquisition and will adjust the fair value of the liability each reporting period. When analyzing the operating performance of an acquired entity, Glu’s management focuses on the total return provided by the investment (i.e., operating profit generated from the acquired entity as compared to the purchase price paid including the final amounts paid for contingent consideration) without taking into consideration any expenses recognized post-acquisition related to the change in fair value of the contingent consideration. Because the final purchase price paid for an acquisition necessarily reflects the accounting value assigned to both the consideration, including the contingent consideration, paid and to the intangible assets (including goodwill) acquired, when analyzing the operating performance of an acquisition in subsequent periods, the Company’s management excludes the GAAP impact of any adjustments to the fair value of these acquisition-related balances to its financial results. Glu believes that the fair value adjustments affect comparability from period to period and that investors benefit from a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that excludes these charges.Transitional Costs. GAAP requires expenses to be recognized for various types of events associated with a business acquisition such as legal, accounting and other deal related expenses. Additionally, Glu has incurred various costs related to the transition and integration of Blammo and Griptonite into Glu’s operations. Glu recorded these non-recurring acquisition and transitional costs as operating expenses when they were incurred. Glu believes that these acquisition and transitional costs affect comparability from period to period and that investors benefit from a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that excludes these expenses. Release of tax liabilities. In the second quarter of 2012 Glu recorded a one-time, non-cash income tax benefit related to the release of certain foreign income tax liabilities upon the expiration of the statute of limitations. Glu believes that this one-time tax benefit does not reflect its ongoing operations and that investors benefit from a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that excludes this benefit. Foreign currency exchange gains and losses. Foreign currency exchange gains and losses represent the net gain or loss that Glu has recorded for the impact of currency exchange rate movements on cash and other assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies related to the revaluation of assets and liabilities. Accordingly, foreign currency exchange gains and losses are generally unpredictable and can cause Glu’s reported results to vary significantly. Due to the unusual magnitude of these gains and losses, and the fact that Glu has not engaged in hedging or taken other actions to reduce the likelihood of incurring a sizeable net gain or loss in future periods, Glu began, with the quarter ended December 31, 2008, to present non-GAAP net loss and net loss per share excluding foreign exchange gains and losses for comparability purposes. Glu believes that these gains and losses do not reflect its ongoing operations and that investors benefit from a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that excludes these items, enabling investors to compare Glu’s core operating results in different periods without this variability. Foreign exchange gains/(losses) recognized during 2011 and 2012 were as follows (in thousands):
|March 31, 2011||$||198|
|June 30, 2011||363|
|September 30, 2011||344|
|December 31, 2011||(116||)|
|March 31, 2012||$||(373||)|
|June 30, 2012||$||205|