Change in Deferred Revenue and Royalties. At the date we sell certain premium games and micro-transactions, Glu has an obligation to provide additional services and incremental unspecified digital content in the future without an additional fee. In these cases, we recognize the revenue and any associated royalty expense on a straight-line basis over the estimated life of the user. Internally, Glu’s management excludes the impact of the changes in deferred revenue and royalties related to its premium and freemium games in its non-GAAP financial measures when evaluating the company’s operating performance, when planning, forecasting and analyzing future periods, and when assessing the performance of its management team. Glu believes that excluding the impact of the changes in deferred revenue and royalties from its operating results is important to facilitate comparisons to prior periods during which Glu did not delay the recognition of significant amounts of revenue related to its games and to understand Glu’s operations.
Amortization of In-Process Development Contracts. In conjunction with the Griptonite acquisition, Glu assumed the remaining obligations to perform services under Griptonite’s development contracts. The estimated fair value of the future, excess profits from these contracts was recorded in purchase accounting and is amortized as a reduction to revenue as services are performed. When analyzing the operating performance of an acquired entity, Glu’s management focuses on the total return provided by the investment without taking into consideration any fair value adjustments made for accounting purposes. Because the final purchase price paid for an acquisition necessarily reflects the accounting value assigned to both the consideration paid and to the intangible assets (including goodwill) acquired, when analyzing the operating performance of an acquisition in subsequent periods, the Company’s management excludes the GAAP impact of any adjustments to the fair value of these acquisition-related balances to its financial results. Glu believes that excluding the impact of the amortization of the customer contract value from its operating results is important as they do not reflect its ongoing operations and that investors benefit from a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that excludes these charges.
Amortization of Intangible Assets. When analyzing the operating performance of an acquired entity, Glu's management focuses on the total return provided by the investment (i.e., operating profit generated from the acquired entity as compared to the purchase price paid) without taking into consideration any allocations made for accounting purposes. Because the purchase price for an acquisition necessarily reflects the accounting value assigned to intangible assets (including acquired in-process technology and goodwill), when analyzing the operating performance of an acquisition in subsequent periods, Glu's management excludes the GAAP impact of acquired intangible assets to its financial results. Glu believes that such an approach is useful in understanding the long-term return provided by an acquisition and that investors benefit from a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that excludes the accounting expense associated with acquired intangible assets.
In addition, in accordance with GAAP, Glu generally recognizes expenses for internally-developed intangible assets as they are incurred until technological feasibility is reached, notwithstanding the potential future benefit such assets may provide. Unlike internally-developed intangible assets, however, and also in accordance with GAAP, Glu generally capitalizes the cost of acquired intangible assets and recognizes that cost as an expense over the useful lives of the assets acquired (other than goodwill, which is not amortized, and acquired in-process technology, which is expensed immediately, as required under GAAP). As a result of their GAAP treatment, there is an inherent lack of comparability between the financial performance of internally-developed intangible assets and acquired intangible assets. Accordingly, Glu believes it is useful to provide, as a supplement to its GAAP operating results, a non-GAAP financial measure that excludes the amortization of acquired intangibles.
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