Net revenues in Investment Management were $1.33 billion, 5% higher than the second quarter of 2011 and 13% higher than the first quarter of 2012. The increase in net revenues compared with the second quarter of 2011 was due to significantly higher incentive fees, partially offset by lower management and other fees and lower transaction revenues. During the quarter, assets under management increased $12 billion to $836 billion. The increase in assets under management included net inflows of $16 billion (8), primarily in fixed income and money market assets, partially offset by net market depreciation of $4 billion, primarily in equity assets.
Operating expenses were $5.21 billion, 8% lower than the second quarter of 2011 and 23% lower than the first quarter of 2012. The firm is in the process of implementing additional expense reduction initiatives.Compensation and Benefits The accrual for compensation and benefits expenses (including salaries, estimated year-end discretionary compensation, amortization of equity awards and other items such as benefits) was $2.92 billion for the second quarter of 2012, a 9% decline compared with the second quarter of 2011. The ratio of compensation and benefits to net revenues for the first half of 2012 was 44.0%. Non-Compensation Expenses Non-compensation expenses were $2.30 billion, 7% lower than the second quarter of 2011 and 4% lower than the first quarter of 2012. The decrease compared with the second quarter of 2011 primarily reflected decreased levels of business activity and the impact of expense reduction initiatives, partially offset by higher impairment charges related to consolidated investment entities during the second quarter of 2012. The second quarter of 2012 included net provisions for litigation and regulatory proceedings of $67 million. Provision for Taxes The effective income tax rate for the first half of 2012 was 33.2%, down slightly from 33.7% for the first quarter of 2012.