Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income (loss) attributable to Quiksilver, Inc. before (i) interest expense, (ii) income tax expense, (iii) depreciation and amortization, (iv) non-cash stock-based compensation expense and (v) asset impairments. Adjusted EBITDA is not defined under generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), and it may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. We use Adjusted EBITDA, along with other GAAP measures, as a measure of profitability because Adjusted EBITDA helps us to compare our performance on a consistent basis by removing from our operating results the impact of our capital structure, the effect of operating in different tax jurisdictions, the impact of our asset base, which can differ depending on the book value of assets, the accounting methods used to compute depreciation and amortization, the existence or timing of asset impairments and the effect of non-cash stock-based compensation expense. We believe EBITDA is useful to investors as it is a widely used measure of performance and the adjustments we make to EBITDA provide further clarity on our profitability. We remove the effect of non-cash stock-based compensation from our earnings which can vary based on share price, share price volatility and the expected life of the equity instruments we grant. In addition, this stock-based compensation expense does not result in cash payments by us. We remove the effect of asset impairments from Adjusted EBITDA for the same reason that we remove depreciation and amortization as it is part of the impact of our asset base. Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as a profitability measure in that it does not include the interest expense on our debts, our provisions for income taxes, the effect of our expenditures for capital assets and certain intangible assets, the effect of non-cash stock-based compensation expense and the effect of asset impairments.
SUPPLEMENTAL EXCHANGE RATE INFORMATION (Unaudited)
In order to better understand growth rates in our foreign operating segments, we make reference to constant currency. Constant currency reporting improves visibility into actual growth rates as it adjusts for the effect of changing foreign currency exchange rates from period to period. Constant currency is calculated by taking the ending foreign currency exchange rate (for balance sheet items) or the average foreign currency exchange rate (for income statement items) used in translation for the current period and applying that same rate to the prior period. Our European segment is translated into constant currency using Euros and our Asia/Pacific segment is translated into constant currency using Australian dollars as these are the primary functional currencies of each operating segment. As such, this methodology does not account for movements in individual currencies within a segment (for example, non-Euro currencies within our European segment and Japanese Yen within our Asia/Pacific segment). A constant currency translation methodology that accounts for movements in each individual currency could yield a different result compared to using only euros and Australian dollars. The following table presents revenues by segment in both historical currency and constant currency for the three months ended April 30, 2011 and 2012 (in thousands):
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